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Buddhaghosa
BUDDHAGHOṣA (Thai : พระพุทธโฆษาจารย์, Chinese : 覺音/佛音) was a 5th-century Indian Theravada
Theravada
Buddhist commentator and scholar. His best-known work is the Visuddhimagga
Visuddhimagga
"Path of Purification", a comprehensive summary and analysis of the Theravada understanding of the Buddha's path to liberation. The interpretations provided by Buddhaghosa have generally constituted the orthodox understanding of Theravada
Theravada
scriptures since at least the 12th century CE. He is generally recognized by both Western scholars and Theravadins as the most important commentator of the Theravada
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Tibetan Buddhist Canon
The TIBETAN BUDDHIST CANON is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various sects of Tibetan Buddhism . In addition to sutrayana texts from Early Buddhist (mostly Sarvastivada ) and Mahayana sources, the Tibetan canon includes tantric texts. The Tibetan Canon underwent a final compilation in the 14th century by Buton Rinchen Drub (1290–1364). The Tibetans did not have a formally arranged Mahayana canon and so devised their own scheme which divided texts into two broad categories: * Kangyur (Wylie : bka'-'gyur) or "Translated Words", consists of works supposed to have been said by the Buddha himself
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Chinese Buddhist Canon
The CHINESE BUDDHIST CANON (大藏經 Dàzàngjīng) (Japanese : 大蔵経 Daizōkyō; Korean : 대장경 Daejanggyeong; Vietnamese : Đại tạng kinh) refers to the total body of Buddhist literature deemed canonical in Chinese , Japanese , Korean , and Vietnamese Buddhism
Buddhism
. The traditional term for this canon is Dàzàngjīng (大藏經), which means the "Great Treasury of Sūtras." CONTENTS * 1 Contents * 2 Versions * 3 Languages * 4 Non-collected works * 5 Translations * 6 Samples * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 External links CONTENTSThe Chinese Buddhist canon
Chinese Buddhist canon
includes Āgama , Vinaya and Abhidharma texts from Early Buddhist schools , as well as the Mahāyāna sūtras and scriptures from Esoteric Buddhism
Buddhism

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Threefold Training
The Buddha identified the THREEFOLD TRAINING (sikkhā) as training in: * higher virtue (adhisīla-sikkhā) * higher mind (adhicitta-sikkhā) * higher wisdom (adhipaññā-sikkhā)CONTENTS* 1 In the Pali Canon * 1.1 Similarity to threefold partition of the Noble Eightfold Path * 2 Notes * 3 Sources * 4 External links IN THE PALI CANONAccording to Theravada
Theravada
canonical texts , pursuing this training leads to the abandonment of lust, hatred, and delusion . One who is fully accomplished in this training attains Nibbana
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Mahayana Sutras
The MAHAYANA SUTRAS are a broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that various traditions of Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
accept as canonical. They are largely preserved in the Chinese Buddhist canon
Chinese Buddhist canon
, the Tibetan Buddhist canon , and in extant Sanskrit
Sanskrit
manuscripts. Around one hundred Mahayana
Mahayana
sutras survive in Sanskrit, or in Chinese and Tibetan translations. Mahayana
Mahayana
sutras are passed down as the legacy of Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
: early versions were not written documents but orally preserved teachings said to be verses that were committed to memory and recited by his disciples, in particular Ananda
Ananda
, which were viewed as a substitute for the actual speech of the Buddha following his parinirvana (death)
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Tripiṭaka
TRIPIṭAKA, also referred to as TIPIṭAKA, is the traditional term for the Buddhist scriptures. The version canonical to Theravada Buddhism
Buddhism
is often referred to as Pali
Pali
Canon in English. Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
also reveres the Tripitaka as authoritative but, unlike Theravadins, it also reveres various derivative literature and commentaries that were composed much later. The Tripitakas were composed between about 500 BCE to about the start of the common era, likely written down for the first time in the 1st century BCE. The Dipavamsa states that during the reign of Valagamba of Anuradhapura (29–17 BCE) the monks who had previously remembered the Tipitaka and its commentary orally now wrote them down in books, because of the threat posed by famine, war. The Mahavamsa also refers briefly to the writing down of the canon and the commentaries at this time
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Karma In Buddhism
KARMA (Sanskrit, also karman, Pāli: kamma) is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
term that literally means "action" or "doing". In the Buddhist
Buddhist
tradition, karma refers to action driven by intention (cetanā ) which leads to future consequences. Those intentions are considered to be the determining factor in the kind of rebirth in samsara , the cycle of rebirth
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Buddhist Cosmology
BUDDHIST COSMOLOGY is the description of the shape and evolution of the Universe
Universe
according to the Buddhist
Buddhist
scriptures and commentaries . It consists of temporal and spatial cosmology, the temporal cosmology being the division of the existence of a 'world' into four discrete moments (the creation, duration, dissolution, and state of being dissolved, this does not seem to be a canonical division however). The spatial cosmology consists of a vertical cosmology, the various planes of beings, their bodies, characteristics, food, lifespan, beauty and a horizontal cosmology, the distribution of these world-systems into an "apparently" infinite sheet of universes. The existence of world-periods (moments, kalpas), is well attested to by the Buddha
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Three Jewels
Buddhists take REFUGE in the Three Jewels
Three Jewels
or Triple Gem, (also known as the "Three Refuges"). The Three Jewels
Three Jewels
are:  * the Buddha , the fully enlightened one * the Dharma
Dharma
, the teachings expounded by the Buddha * the Sangha , the monastic order of Buddhism
Buddhism
that practise the DharmaRefuge is common to all major schools of Buddhism. Pali
Pali
texts employ the Brahmanical motif of the triple refuge, found in Rig Veda 9.97.47, Rig Veda 6.46.9 and Chandogya Upanishad
Chandogya Upanishad
2.22.3-4
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Pāramitā
PāRAMITā ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
, Pali
Pali
) or PāRAMī (Pāli) is "perfection" or "completeness". While, technically, pāramī and pāramitā are both Pāli terms, Pali
Pali
literature makes far greater reference to pāramī. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Theravāda Buddhism
Buddhism
* 2.1 Canonical sources * 2.2 Historicity * 2.3 Traditional practice * 3 Mahāyāna Buddhism
Buddhism
* 4 Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
* 5 See also * 6 References * 6.1 Citations * 6.2 Works cited * 7 External links ETYMOLOGY Donald S. Lopez, Jr. describes the etymology of the term: The term pāramitā, commonly translated as "perfection," has two etymologies. The first derives it from the word parama, meaning "highest", "most distant", and hence "chief", "primary", "most excellent"
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Bodhisattva
In Buddhism
Buddhism
, BODHISATTVA is the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
term for anyone who, motivated by great compassion, has generated Bodhicitta
Bodhicitta
, which is a spontaneous wish and a compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood
Buddhahood
for the benefit of all sentient beings . Bodhisattvas are a popular subject in Buddhist art . CONTENTS * 1 Origins and outlines * 2 Theravāda Buddhism
Buddhism
* 3 In Mahāyāna Buddhism
Buddhism
* 3.1 Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
ideal * 3.2 Ten grounds * 3.3 School doctrines * 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links ORIGINS AND OUTLINESIn early Indian Buddhism, the term bodhisattva was primarily used to refer specifically to Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
in his former life
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Schools Of Buddhism
SCHOOLS OF BUDDHISM refers to the various institutional and doctrinal divisions of Buddhism
Buddhism
that have existed from ancient times up to the present. The classification and nature of various doctrinal , philosophical or cultural facets or schools of Buddhism
Buddhism
is vague and has been interpreted in many different ways, often due to the sheer number (perhaps thousands) of different sects, subsects, movements, etc. that have made up or currently make up the whole of Buddhist traditions. The sectarian and conceptual divisions of Buddhist thought are part of the modern framework of Buddhist studies , as well as comparative religion in Asia
Asia

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Mahayana
MAHāYāNA ( Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, under some classifications) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice. The Buddhist tradition of Vajrayana is sometimes classified as a part of Mahayana Buddhism, but some scholars may consider it as a different branch altogether. According to the teachings of Mahāyāna traditions, "Mahāyāna" also refers to the path of the Bodhisattva seeking complete enlightenment for the benefit of all sentient beings, also called "Bodhisattvayāna", or the " Bodhisattva Vehicle". A bodhisattva who has accomplished this goal is called a samyaksaṃbuddha , or "fully enlightened Buddha". A samyaksaṃbuddha can establish the Dharma and lead disciples to enlightenment
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Buddhahood
In Buddhism
Buddhism
, BUDDHAHOOD ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: बुद्धत्व buddhatva, Pali
Pali
: बुद्धत्त buddhatta or बुद्धभाव buddhabhāva) is the condition or rank of a buddha (/ˈbuːdə/ or /ˈbʊdə/ , Sanskrit
Sanskrit
pronunciation: ( listen ), Pali/ Sanskrit
Sanskrit
for "awakened one"). The goal of Mahayana\'s Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
path is Samyaksambuddhahood, so that one may benefit all sentient beings by teaching them the path of cessation of dukkha . This contrasts with the goal of Hinayana
Hinayana
path, where the goal is Arhatship
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Four Stages Of Enlightenment
The FOUR STAGES OF ENLIGHTENMENT in Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
are the four progressive stages culminating in full enlightenment as an Arahat . These four stages are Sotapanna , Sakadagami , Anāgāmi , and Arahant. The Buddha referred to people who are at one of these four stages as noble people (ariya-puggala) and the community of such persons as the noble sangha (ariya-sangha). The teaching of the four stages of enlightenment is a central element of the early Buddhist schools , including the Theravada
Theravada
school of Buddhism, which still survives
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Sati (Buddhism)
SATI (in Pali
Pali
; Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: smṛti) is MINDFULNESS or AWARENESS, a spiritual or psychological faculty (indriya ) that forms an essential part of Buddhist
Buddhist
practice . It is the first factor of the Seven Factors of Enlightenment . "Correct" or "right" mindfulness (Pali: sammā-sati, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
samyak-smṛti) is the seventh element of the Noble Eightfold Path
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