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Behaviorism
Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals. It assumes that all behaviors are either reflexes produced by a response to certain stimuli in the environment, or a consequence of that individual's history, including especially reinforcement and punishment, together with the individual's current motivational state and controlling stimuli. Although behaviorists generally accept the important role of inheritance in determining behavior, they focus primarily on environmental factors. Behaviorism combines elements of philosophy, methodology, and psychological theory. It emerged in the late nineteenth century as a reaction to depth psychology and other traditional forms of psychology, which often had difficulty making predictions that could be tested experimentally
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Physics
Physics
Physics
(from Ancient Greek: φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), translit. physikḗ (epistḗmē), lit. 'knowledge of nature', from φύσις phýsis "nature"[1][2][3]) is the natural science that studies matter[4] and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force.[5] Physics
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Innateness Hypothesis
The innateness hypothesis is an expression coined by Hilary Putnam
Hilary Putnam
to refer to a linguistic theory of language acquisition which holds that at least some knowledge about language exists in humans at birth.[1][2] Putnam used the expression "the innateness hypothesis" to target linguistic nativism and specifically the views of Noam Chomsky. Facts about the complexity of human language systems, the universality of language acquisition, the facility that children demonstrate in acquiring these systems, and the comparative performance of adults in attempting the same task are all commonly invoked in support. However, the validity of Chomsky's approach is still debated. Empiricists advocate that language is entirely learned
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Occam's Razor
Occam's razor
Occam's razor
(also Ockham's razor or Ocham's razor; Latin: lex parsimoniae "law of parsimony") is the problem-solving principle that, when presented with competing hypothetical answers to a problem, one should select the one that makes the fewest assumptions. The idea is attributed to William of Ockham
William of Ockham
(c. 1287–1347), who was an English Franciscan
Franciscan
friar, scholastic philosopher, and theologian. In science, Occam's razor
Occam's razor
is used as a heuristic guide in the development of theoretical models, rather than as a rigorous arbiter between candidate models.[1][2] In the scientific method, Occam's razor is not considered an irrefutable principle of logic or a scientific result; the preference for simplicity in the scientific method is based on the falsifiability criterion
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Mood Disorders
Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.[1] The classification is in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Mood disorders fall into the basic groups of elevated mood, such as mania or hypomania; depressed mood, of which the best-known and most researched is major depressive disorder (MDD) (commonly called clinical depression, unipolar depression, or major depression); and moods which cycle between mania and depression, known as bipolar disorder (BD) (formerly known as manic depression)
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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Posttraumatic stress disorder
Posttraumatic stress disorder
(PTSD)[note 1] is a mental disorder that can develop after a person is exposed to a traumatic event, such as sexual assault, warfare, traffic collisions, or other threats on a person's life.[1] Symptoms may include disturbing thoughts, feelings, or dreams related to the events, mental or physical distress to trauma-related cues, attempts to avoid trauma-related cues, alterations in how a person thinks and feels, and an increase in the fight-or-flight response.[1][3] These symptoms last for more than a month after the event.[1] Young children are
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Phobia
A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder, defined by a persistent fear of an object or situation.[1] The phobia typically results in a rapid onset of fear and is present for more than six months.[1] The affected person will go to great lengths to avoid the situation or object, typically to a degree greater than the actual danger posed.[1] If the feared object or situation cannot be avoided, the affected person will have significant distress.[1] With blood or injury phobia, fainting may occur.[1] Agoraphobia
Agoraphobia
is often associated with panic attacks.[6] Usually a person has phobias to
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Trial-and-error
Trial and error is a fundamental method of problem solving.[1] It is characterised by repeated, varied attempts which are continued until success,[2] or until the agent stops trying. According to W.H. Thorpe, the term was devised by C. Lloyd Morgan (1852–1936) after trying out similar phrases "trial and failure" and "trial and practice".[3] Under Morgan's Canon, animal behaviour should be explained in the simplest possible way. Where behaviour seems to imply higher mental processes, it might be explained by trial-and-error learning. An example is the skillful way in which his terrier Tony opened the garden gate, easily misunderstood as an insightful act by someone seeing the final behaviour
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Substance Abuse
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder. Widely differing definitions of drug abuse are used in public health, medical and criminal justice contexts. In some cases criminal or anti-social behavior occurs when the person is under the influence of a drug, and long term personality changes in individuals may occur as well.[5] In addition to possible physical, social, and psychological harm, use of some drugs may also lead to criminal penalties, although these vary widely depending on the local jurisdiction.[6] Drugs most often associated with this term include: alcohol, cannabis, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, methaqualone, opioids and some substituted amphetamines
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Autism
Autism
Autism
is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior.[3] Parents usually notice signs in the first two or three years of their child's life.[1][3] These signs often develop gradually, though some children with autism reach their developmental milestones at a normal pace and then worsen.[9] Autism
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Organizational Behavior Management
Organizational behavior management (OBM) is a form of applied behavior analysis (ABA) which applies psychological principles of organizational behavior and the experimental analysis of behavior to organizations to improve individual and group performance and worker safety.[1] The areas of application may include: systems analysis, management, training, and performance improvement.[2][3] OBM resembles human resource management, but places more emphasis on ABA and systems-level focus. Various OBM interventions have included working with therapists on increasing billable hours[4][5][6] OBM takes principles from many fields, including behavioral systems analysis and performance management, although there is some debate[by whom?] as to whether taking principles from fields outside of behavior analysis meshes within the definition of OBM.[7] R
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Society For Quantitative Analysis Of Behavior
The Society for the Quantitative Analyses of Behavior was founded in 1978 by Michael Lamport Commons and John Anthony Nevin. The first president was Richard J. Herrnstein. In the beginning it was called the Harvard Symposium on Quantitative Analysis of Behavior (HSQAB). This society meets once a year to discuss various topic in quantitative analysis of behavior including: behavioral economics, behavioral momentum, Connectionist systems or neural networks, hyperbolic discounting, foraging, errorless learning, learning and the Rescorla-Wagner model, matching law, Melioration, scalar expectancy, signal detection and stimulus control, connectionism or Neural Networks. Mathematical models and data are presented and discussed. The field is a branch of mathematical psychology. Some papers resulting from the symposium are published as a special issue of the journal Behavioural Processes. References[edit]Commons, M. L., (2001)
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Microeconomics
Microeconomics
Microeconomics
(from Greek prefix mikro- meaning "small") is a branch of economics that studies the behavior of individuals and firms in making decisions regarding the allocation of scarce resources and the interactions among these individuals and firms.[1][2][3] One goal of microeconomics is to analyze the market mechanisms that establish relative prices among goods and services and allocate limited resources among alternative uses. Microeconomics
Microeconomics
shows conditions under which free markets lead to desirable allocations
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Rote Learning
Rote learning is a memorization technique based on repetition. The idea is that one will be able to quickly recall the meaning of the material the more one repeats it. Some of the alternatives to rote learning include meaningful learning, associative learning, and active learning.Contents1 Versus critical thinking 2 By nation and culture 3 In computer science 4 Learning methods for school 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksVersus critical thinking[edit] Rote methods are routinely used when fast memorization is required, such as learning one's lines in a play or memorizing a telephone number. Rote learning is widely used in the mastery of foundational knowledge. Examples of school topics where rote learning is frequently used include phonics in reading, the periodic table in chemistry, multiplication tables in mathematics, anatomy in medicine, cases or statutes in law, basic formulae in any science, etc
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Audio-lingual Method
The audio-lingual method, Army Method, or New Key,[1] is a style of teaching used in teaching foreign languages. It is based on behaviorist theory,[citation needed] which postulates that certain traits of living things, and in this case humans, could be trained through a system of reinforcement. The correct use of a trait would receive positive feedback while incorrect use of that trait would receive negative feedback.[citation needed] This approach to language learning was similar to another, earlier method called the direct method.[citation needed] Like the direct method, the audio-lingual method advised that students should be taught a language directly, without using the students' native language to explain new words or grammar in the target language. However, unlike the direct method, the audio-lingual method did not focus on teaching vocabulary
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Natural Science
Natural science
Natural science
is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. Mechanisms such as peer review and repeatability of findings are used to try to ensure the validity of scientific advances. Natural science
Natural science
can be divided into two main branches: life science (or biological science) and physical science. Physical science is subdivided into branches, including physics, space science, chemistry, and Earth science
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