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Behaviorism
BEHAVIORISM (or BEHAVIOURISM) is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals. It assumes that all behaviors are either reflexes produced by a response to certain stimuli in the environment, or a consequence of that individual's history, including especially reinforcement and punishment, together with the individual's current motivational state and controlling stimuli. Although behaviorists generally accept the important role of inheritance in determining behavior, they focus primarily on environmental factors. Behaviorism combines elements of philosophy, methodology, and psychological theory. It emerged in the late nineteenth century as a reaction to depth psychology and other traditional forms of psychology, which often had difficulty making predictions that could be tested experimentally
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Innateness Hypothesis
The INNATENESS HYPOTHESIS is an expression coined by Hilary Putnam
Hilary Putnam
to refer to a linguistic theory of language acquisition which holds that at least some knowledge about language exists in humans at birth. Putnam used the expression "the innateness hypothesis" to target linguistic nativism and specifically the views of Noam Chomsky
Noam Chomsky
. Facts about the complexity of human language systems, the universality of language acquisition, the facility that children demonstrate in acquiring these systems, and the comparative performance of adults in attempting the same task are all commonly invoked in support. However, the validity of Chomsky's approach is still debated. Empiricists advocate that language is entirely learned
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Phobia
A PHOBIA is a type of anxiety disorder , defined by a persistent fear of an object or situation. The phobia typically results in a rapid onset of fear and is present for more than six months. The affected person will go to great lengths to avoid the situation or object, typically to a degree greater than the actual danger posed. If the feared object or situation cannot be avoided, the affected person will have significant distress . With blood or injury phobia, fainting may occur. Agoraphobia is often associated with panic attacks . Usually a person has phobias to a number of objects or situations. Phobias can be divided into specific phobias , social phobia , and agoraphobia . Types of specific phobias include to certain animals, natural environment situations, blood or injury, and specific situations. The most common are fear of spiders , fear of snakes , and fear of heights
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Substance Abuse
SUBSTANCE ABUSE, also known as DRUG ABUSE, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder . Widely differing definitions of drug abuse are used in public health, medical and criminal justice contexts. In some cases criminal or anti-social behavior occurs when the person is under the influence of a drug, and long term personality changes in individuals may occur as well. In addition to possible physical, social, and psychological harm, use of some drugs may also lead to criminal penalties, although these vary widely depending on the local jurisdiction. Drugs most often associated with this term include: alcohol , cannabis , barbiturates , benzodiazepines , cocaine , methaqualone , opioids and some substituted amphetamines
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Autism
AUTISM is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction , impaired verbal and non-verbal communication , and restricted and repetitive behavior. Parents usually notice signs in the first two years of their child's life. These signs often develop gradually, though some children with autism reach their developmental milestones at a normal pace and then regress . The diagnostic criteria require that symptoms become apparent in early childhood, typically before age three. Autism
Autism
is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Some cases are strongly associated with certain infections during pregnancy including rubella and use of alcohol or cocaine
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Organizational Behavior Management
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT (OBM) is a form of applied behavior analysis which applies psychological principles of organizational behavior and the experimental analysis of behavior to organizations to improve individual and group performance and worker safety. The areas of application may include: systems analysis , management, training, and performance improvement . OBM resembles human resource management , but places more emphasis on ABA and systems-level focus . Various OBM interventions have included working with therapists on increasing billable hours OBM takes principles from many fields, including behavioral systems analysis and performance management , although there is some debate as to whether taking principles from fields outside of behavior analysis meshes within the definition of OBM. Related fields include behavior-based safety and behavioral engineering
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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD) is a mental disorder that can develop after a person is exposed to a traumatic event, such as sexual assault , warfare , traffic collisions , or other threats on a person's life. Symptoms may include disturbing thoughts, feelings, or dreams related to the events, mental or physical distress to trauma-related cues, attempts to avoid trauma-related cues, alterations in how a person thinks and feels, and an increase in the fight-or-flight response . These symptoms last for more than a month after the event. Young children are less likely to show distress but instead may express their memories through play. A person with PTSD is at a higher risk for suicide and intentional self-harm . Most people who have experienced a traumatic event will not develop PTSD
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Mood Disorders
MOOD DISORDER is a group of diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) classification system where a disturbance in the person's mood is hypothesized to be the main underlying feature. The classification is known as MOOD (AFFECTIVE) DISORDERS in International Classification of Diseases (ICD). English psychiatrist Henry Maudsley
Henry Maudsley
proposed an overarching category of affective disorder. The term was then replaced by mood disorder, as the latter term refers to the underlying or longitudinal emotional state, whereas the former refers to the external expression observed by others
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Occam's Razor
Andreas Cellarius 's illustration of the Copernican system, from the Harmonia Macrocosmica (1660). Future positions of the sun, moon and other solar system bodies can be calculated using a geocentric model (the earth is at the centre) or using a heliocentric model (the sun is at the centre). Both work, but the geocentric model arrives at the same conclusions through a much more complex system of calculations than the heliocentric model. This was pointed out in a preface to Copernicus
Copernicus
' first edition of De revolutionibus orbium coelestium . OCCAM\'S RAZOR (also OCKHAM\'S RAZOR; Latin
Latin
: lex parsimoniae "LAW OF PARSIMONY") is a problem-solving principle attributed to William of Ockham (c. 1287–1347), who was an English Franciscan
Franciscan
friar, scholastic philosopher, and theologian
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Microeconomics
MICROECONOMICS (from Greek prefix mikro- meaning "small") is a branch of economics that studies the behavior of individuals and firms in making decisions regarding the allocation of scarce resources and the interactions among these individuals and firms. One goal of microeconomics is to analyze the market mechanisms that establish relative prices among goods and services and allocate limited resources among alternative uses. Microeconomics
Microeconomics
shows conditions under which free markets lead to desirable allocations. It also analyzes market failure , where markets fail to produce efficient results. Microeconomics
Microeconomics
stands in contrast to macroeconomics , which involves "the sum total of economic activity, dealing with the issues of growth , inflation , and unemployment and with national policies relating to these issues"
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Trial-and-error
TRIAL AND ERROR is a fundamental method of problem solving . It is characterised by repeated, varied attempts which are continued until success, or until the agent stops trying. According to W.H. Thorpe , the term was devised by C. Lloyd Morgan (1852–1936) after trying out similar phrases "trial and failure" and "trial and practice". Under Morgan\'s Canon , animal behaviour should be explained in the simplest possible way. Where behaviour seems to imply higher mental processes, it might be explained by trial-and-error learning. An example is the skillful way in which his terrier Tony opened the garden gate, easily misunderstood as an insightful act by someone seeing the final behaviour. Lloyd Morgan, however, had watched and recorded the series of approximations by which the dog had gradually learned the response, and could demonstrate that no insight was required to explain it. Edward Thorndike showed how to manage a trial-and-error experiment in the laboratory
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Society For Quantitative Analysis Of Behavior
ANALYSIS is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it. The technique has been applied in the study of mathematics and logic since before Aristotle (384–322 B.C. ), though analysis as a formal concept is a relatively recent development. The word comes from the Ancient Greek ἀνάλυσις (analysis, "a breaking up", from ana- "up, throughout" and lysis "a loosening"). As a formal concept, the method has variously been ascribed to Alhazen , René Descartes (Discourse on the Method ), and Galileo Galilei . It has also been ascribed to Isaac Newton , in the form of a practical method of physical discovery (which he did not name)
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Rote Learning
ROTE LEARNING is a memorization technique based on repetition . The idea is that one will be able to quickly recall the meaning of the material the more one repeats it. Some of the alternatives to rote learning include meaningful learning , associative learning , and active learning . CONTENTS * 1 Versus critical thinking * 2 By nation and culture * 3 In computer science * 4 Learning methods for school * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links VERSUS CRITICAL THINKINGRote methods are routinely used when fast memorization is required, such as learning one's lines in a play or memorizing a telephone number . Rote learning is widely used in the mastery of foundational knowledge. Examples of school topics where rote learning is frequently used include phonics in reading , the periodic table in chemistry, multiplication tables in mathematics , anatomy in medicine , cases or statutes in law, basic formula in any science , etc
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Audio-lingual Method
The AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD, ARMY METHOD, or NEW KEY, is a style of teaching used in teaching foreign languages . It is based on behaviorist theory, which postulates that certain traits of living things, and in this case humans , could be trained through a system of reinforcement. The correct use of a trait would receive positive feedback while incorrect use of that trait would receive negative feedback. This approach to language learning was similar to another, earlier method called the direct method . Like the direct method, the audio-lingual method advised that students should be taught a language directly, without using the students' native language to explain new words or grammar in the target language. However, unlike the direct method, the audio-lingual method did not focus on teaching vocabulary . Rather, the teacher drilled students in the use of grammar
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Phylogeny
A PHYLOGENETIC TREE or EVOLUTIONARY TREE is a branching diagram or "tree " showing the inferred evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their PHYLOGENY—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics. The taxa joined together in the tree are implied to have descended from a common ancestor . Phylogenetic trees are central to the field of phylogenetics . In a rooted phylogenetic tree, each node with descendants represents the inferred most recent common ancestor of the descendants, and the edge lengths in some trees may be interpreted as time estimates. Each node is called a taxonomic unit. Internal nodes are generally called hypothetical taxonomic units, as they cannot be directly observed. Trees are useful in fields of biology such as bioinformatics , systematics , and phylogenetic comparative methods
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Culture
CULTURE (/ˈkʌltʃər/ ) is the social behavior and norms found in human societies . Culture
Culture
is considered a central concept in anthropology , encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies . Some aspects of human behavior, social practices such as culture, expressive forms such as art , music , dance , ritual , and religion , and technologies such as tool usage , cooking , shelter , and clothing are said to be cultural universals , found in all human societies. The concept of material culture covers the physical expressions of culture, such as technology, architecture and art, whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as principles of social organization (including practices of political organization and social institutions ), mythology , philosophy , literature (both written and oral ), and science comprise the intangible cultural heritage of a society
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