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Avvaiyar
The Avvaiyars (Tamil: ஔவையார்; 'Respectable Women') was the title of more than one poet who was active during different periods of Tamil literature. The Avvaiyar
Avvaiyar
were some of the most famous and important female poets of the Tamil canon. Abithana Chintamani states that there were three female poets titled Avvaiyar. Among them, the first Avvaiyar
Avvaiyar
lived during the Sangam period
Sangam period
(c. 1st and 2nd century CE) and is said to have had cordial relations with the Tamil chieftains Vēl Pāri
Vēl Pāri
and Athiyamān. She wrote 59 poems in the Puṟanāṉūṟu.[1] Avvaiyar
Avvaiyar
II lived during the period of Kambar and Ottakoothar during the reign of the Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
in the tenth century. She is often imagined as an old and intelligent lady by Tamil people
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Central Tamil Dialect
The Central Tamil dialect is a dialect of Tamil spoken in the districts of Thanjavur, Tiruvarur, Nagapattinam and Tiruchirapalli in central Tamil Nadu, India and to some extent, in the neighbouring Cuddalore and Pudukkottai districts.[1][2] Along with Madurai Tamil, the Central Tamil dialect is considered to be one of the purest forms of spoken Tamil in Tamil Nadu and is considered to be the basis of standard spoken Tamil in the state.[3][4] Contrary to popular belief, the Tamil used in formal addressings and news reading is Literary Tamil and not the Central Tamil dialect. Of the different Tamil dialects, the Central Tamil dialect bears the closest affinity to Brahmin Tamil[5] Notes[edit]^ Dravidian case system, Volume 1. Annamalai University. 1976. p. 264.  ^ "Language Variation in Tamil".  ^ B. P. Mahapatra, J. Suresh, India. Office of the Registrar General. Language Division (1987)
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Fulbright Scholarship
The Fulbright Program, including the Fulbright–Hays Program, is an American scholarship program of competitive, merit-based grants for international educational exchange for students, scholars, teachers, professionals, scientists and artists, founded by United States Senator J. William Fulbright
J. William Fulbright
in 1946. Under the Fulbright Program, competitively selected American citizens may become eligible for scholarships to study, conduct research, or exercise their talents abroad; and citizens of other countries may qualify to do the same in the United States
United States
of America. The program was established to increase mutual understanding between the people of the United States
United States
and other countries through the exchange of persons, knowledge, and skills
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Akanaṉūṟu
Akananuru (Tamil: அகநானூறு), a classical Tamil poetic work, is the seventh book in the anthology of Sangam literature
Sangam literature
(600 BCE
BCE
- 300 CE), namely Ettuthokai.[1] It contains 400 Akam (subjective) poems dealing with matters of love and separation. Other names for Akananuru include Neduntogai or Nedunthokai ("the long anthology"), Ahappattu, Ahananuru, and Agananuru.[2]Contents1 Authors 2 Date 3 Poetic characteristics 4 English Translations 5 Notes 6 ReferencesAuthors[edit] As many as 145 poets are said to have contributed to Akananuru collection.[2] Perunthevanaar, who translated the Mahabharatham into Tamil, is one of the authors
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Vallal Athiyamaan Nedumaan Anji
Athiyamān Nedumān Añci was one of the most powerful Vēlir kings of the Sangam era.[1] A famous royal of the Athiyamān family dynasty, he was the contemporary and the patron of poet Auvaiyar of the Sangam period.[2] Athiyamān was a dynastic title of the Vēlir line who ruled over the Dharmapuri, Salem and surrounding areas with their capital at Tagadur (now known as Dharmapuri).[3] The most famous of their line were the father-son duo: Nedumān Añci and Elini (the son).[4][5] They were one of the Kadai ezhu vallal (7 great patrons) of arts and literature in ancient Tamilakam.[6]Contents1 Patron of Auvaiyar 2 A warrior 3 Friendship with the Cholas 4 Valiant opponent of Peruñcēral Irumporai 5 Inscriptions 6 Notes 7 ReferencesPatron of Auvaiyar[edit] When poet Auvaiyar visited the court of Athiyamān Nedumān Añci, he liked her so much that he deliberately delayed in giving her gifts to prolong her stay
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Ottakkuttar
Ottakoothar was a Tamil court poet to three Later Chola kings, namely Vikrama Chola, Kulotunga II and Rajaraja II.[1] He wrote poems in praise of these three kings.[2] The poet's memorial is believed to be still in a place known as "Darasuram in Kumbakonam", just opposite to the famous Airavatesvara Temple. According to legend, the goddess Saraswati blessed him in Koothanur, then he became a famous poet.[3] Popular culture[edit] In the 1957 Tamil film Ambikapathy, the character of Ottakoothar was portrayed and was performed by M. N. Nambiar. The character was also played by Rajesh in Mahasakthi Mariamman, a 1986 Tamil film. See also[edit]Koothanur Maha Saraswathi TempleReferences[edit]^ "Packed with information". The Hindu. India. 27 August 2004.  ^ "Ula Ilakkiyam". Tamil Virtual University. Retrieved 24 January 2012.  ^ "Consecration of 1000-yr old Saraswathi Temple on July 6". Times of India. Chennai, India
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Didactic
Didacticism is a philosophy that emphasizes instructional and informative qualities in literature and other types of art.[1][2]Contents1 Overview 2 Examples 3 See also 4 References 5 Further readingOverview[edit] The term has its origin in the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word διδακτικός (didaktikos), "related to education and teaching", and signified learning in a fascinating and intriguing manner.[3] Didactic art was meant both to entertain and to instruct. Didactic plays, for instance, were intended to convey a moral theme or other rich truth to the audience.[4][5] An example of didactic writing is Alexander Pope's An Essay on Criticism
An Essay on Criticism
(1711), which offers a range of advice about critics and criticism
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NASA
The National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Administration ( NASA
NASA
/ˈnæsə/) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.[note 1] President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
established NASA
NASA
in 1958[10] with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science
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Athiyaman
Atikamāṉ (also known as Adhiyamān, Adigamān or Satyaputra-Atiyān) were a famous royal Tamil dynasty of the royal Velirs. These king-chiefs ruled from their capital Tagadur[1] (Present day Dharmapuri)from at least the 3rd century BCE. The Velir royal house was one of the four kingdoms of Tamilakam, ruling parts of the Kongu Nadu. They were surrounded by the Cheras to the west and the Pandyas and Cholas to the east. The Atikamāṉs are mentioned in the Puranas as well as in ancient Tamil literature. Their rule of Tamilakam is mentioned in rock inscriptions of the Sangam period such as the Edicts of Asoka in the 3rd century BCE and the Gummireddipura plates with the added title Satyaputra - the "members of the fraternity of truth", synonymous with the Velir clan. A number of inscriptions in Jambai (Tirukkoyilur) add details of their sovereignty in the first century CE. This ruling tribe rose in prominence during the classical period of the history of Tamil Nadu
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Red Hen Press
Red Hen Press
Red Hen Press
is an American non-profit press specializing in the publication of poetry, literary fiction, and nonfiction. Founded in 1994, Red Hen is now located in Pasadena, California. There are two imprints of Red Hen Press, Arktoi Books and Boreal Books.Contents1 History 2 Imprints 3 Notable authors 4 Advisory board 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] Red Hen Press
Red Hen Press
was founded by Mark E. Cull and Kate Gale
Kate Gale
in 1994. It began as a collective, and now publishes a number of notable authors. The press was reorganized as a non-profit 501(c)3, getting its federal exemption in 2004
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Naṟṟiṇai
Natrinai (Tamil: நற்றிணை), a classical Tamil poetic work, is a book of Ettuthokai, a Sangam literature anthology. Natrinai contains 400 poems dealing with the five landscapes of Sangam poetry – kurinchi, mullai, marutham, neithal and paalai. This belongs to some of the oldest extant Tamil literature and is dated to belong to the Sangam age (100 BCE - 200 CE). The stanzas are of varying lengths of between nine and twelve lines each. The Pandya king Maaran Vazhuthi patronised this collection. It is not known who made this collection. Compilation[edit] It was compiled by Pāratam-pāṭiyap-Peruntēvanar under the patronage of Pandya king, King Māran Vazhuthi. Peruntēvanar also wrote an invocatory stanza after its compilation. Authors of 56 poems are not known. The names of 192 authors are known. Poem 234 is missing and considered extinct
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Old Tamil
Old Tamil is the period of the Tamil language
Tamil language
spanning the 3rd century BC to the 8th century AD. The earliest records in Old Tamil are short inscriptions from between the 3rd and 2nd century BC in caves and on pottery. These inscriptions are written in a variant of the Brahmi script
Brahmi script
called Tamil Brahmi.[2] The earliest long text in Old Tamil is the Tolkāppiyam, an early work on Tamil grammar and poetics, whose oldest layers could be as old as the 1st century BC.[3] A large number of literary works in Old Tamil have also survived. These include a corpus of 2,381 poems collectively known as Sangam literature
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Middle Tamil
The evolution of Old Tamil
Old Tamil
into Middle Tamil, which is generally taken to have been completed by the 8th century,[1] was characterised by a number of phonological and grammatical changes. In phonological terms, the most important shifts were the virtual disappearance of the aytam (ஃ), an old phoneme,[2] the coalescence of the alveolar and dental nasals,[3] and the transformation of the alveolar plosive into a rhotic.[4] In grammar, the most important change was the emergence of the present tense. The present tense evolved out of the verb kil (கில்), meaning "to be possible" or "to befall". In Old Tamil, this verb was used as an aspect marker to indicate that an action was micro-durative, non-sustained or non-lasting, usually in combination with a time marker such as ṉ (ன்)
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Modern Tamil
 Sri Lanka  Singapore  India:Tamil Nadu[3] Puducherry[4] Andaman & Nicobar Islands[5]Recognised minority language in Malaysia[6]  Mauritius[7]  South Africa[8]Language codesISO 639-1 taISO 639-2 tamISO 639-3 Variously: tam – Modern Tamil oty – Old Tamil ptq – Pattapu BhashaiLinguist Listoty Old TamilGlottolog tamil1289  Modern Tamil[9] oldt1248  Old Tamil[10]Linguasphere 49-EBE-aThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.This article contains Indic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Indic text.Tamil is written in a non-Latin script
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