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Avvaiyar
The AVVAIYARs (Tamil : ஔவையார்; 'RESPECTABLE WOMEN\') was the title of more than one poet who was active during different periods of Tamil literature
Tamil literature
. The Avvaiyar
Avvaiyar
were some of the most famous and important female poets of the Tamil canon. Abithana Chintamani states that there were three female poets titled Avvaiyar. Among them, Avvaiyar
Avvaiyar
lived during the Sangam period
Sangam period
(c. 1st and 2nd century CE) and had cordial relation with the Tamil chieftains Vēl Pāri and Athiyamān . She wrote 59 poems in the Puṟanāṉūṟu
Puṟanāṉūṟu
. Avvaiyar
Avvaiyar
II lived during the period of Kambar and Ottakoothar during the reign of the Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
in the 10th century
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V. R. Ramachandra Dikshitar
VISHNAMPET R. RAMACHANDRA DIKSHITAR (April 16, 1896 – November 24, 1953) was a historian, Indologist and Dravidologist from the Indian state of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
. He was a professor of history and archaeology in the University of Madras
Madras
and is the author of standard text books on Indian history. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Academic career * 3 Works * 4 Death * 5 Legacy * 6 Historical methodology * 7 Notes * 8 References EARLY LIFERamachandra Dikshitar was born in the village of Vishnampettai or Vishnampet in Madras
Madras
Presidency in an orthodox Brahmin family on April 16, 1896. He did his schooling at Sir P S Sivaswami Iyer High School at Thirukkattupalli and earned his bachelor of arts in history with distinction from St. Joseph\'s College, Tiruchirappalli in 1920
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Ottakkuttar
OTTAKOOTHAR was a Tamil court poet to three legendary early Chola kings , namely Vikrama Chola , Kulotunga II and Rajaraja II . He wrote poems in praise of these three kings. The poet's memorial is believed to be still in a place known as "Darasuram in Kumbakonam", just opposite to the famous Airavatesvara Temple . According to legend, the goddess Saraswati blessed him in Koothanur , then he became a famous poet. POPULAR CULTUREIn the 1957 Tamil film Ambikapathy , the character of Ottakoothar was portrayed and was performed by M. N. Nambiar
M. N. Nambiar
. The character was also played by Rajesh in Mahasakthi Mariamman , a 1986 Tamil film. SEE ALSO * Koothanur Maha Saraswathi Temple REFERENCES * ^ "Packed with information". The Hindu. India. 27 August 2004. * ^ "Ula Ilakkiyam". Tamil Virtual University. Retrieved 24 January 2012
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Vallal Athiyamaan Nedumaan Anji
ATHIYAMāN NEDUMāN AñCI was one of the most powerful Tamil Vēlir kings of the Sangam era. A famous royal of the Athiyamān family dynasty, he was the contemporary and the patron of poet Auvaiyar of the Sangam period. Athiyamān was a dynastic title of the Vēlir line who ruled over the Dharmapuri , Salem and surrounding areas with their capital at Tagadur (now known as Dharmapuri ). The most famous of their line were the father-son duo: Nedumān Añci and Elini (the son). They were one of the Kadai ezhu vallal (7 great patrons) of arts and literature in ancient Tamilakam
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Akanaṉūṟu
AKANANURU (Tamil : அகநானுறு), a classical Tamil poetic work, is the seventh book in the anthology of Sangam literature (600 BCE
BCE
- 300 CE ), namely Ettuthokai . It contains 400 Akam (subjective) poems dealing with matters of love and separation. Other names for Akananuru include Neduntogai or Nedunthokai ("the long anthology"), Ahappattu, Ahananuru, and Agananuru. CONTENTS * 1 Authors * 2 Date * 3 Poetic characteristics * 4 English Translations * 5 Notes * 6 References AUTHORSAs many as 145 poets are said to have contributed to Akananuru collection. Perunthevanaar, who translated the Mahabharatham into Tamil, is one of the authors. Rudrasarman compiled this anthology at the behest of the Pandya
Pandya
king Ukkiraperuvazhuthi. DATEIt is highly likely that the poems in Akananuru collection were prevalent independently before they were collected and categorized in this present form
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Murugan
KARTIKEYA ( IAST
IAST
: Kārttikēya), also known as MURUGAN, SKANDA, KUMARA, and SUBRAHMANYA, is the Hindu
Hindu
god of war. He is the son of Parvati
Parvati
and Shiva
Shiva
, brother of Ganesha
Ganesha
, and a god whose life story has many versions in Hinduism. An important deity found all over the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
in its history, Kartikeya
Kartikeya
is particularly popular in South India, such as among the Tamil people . Kartikeya
Kartikeya
is an ancient god, traceable to the Vedic era. Archaeological evidence from 1st-century CE and earlier, where he is found with Hindu
Hindu
god Agni
Agni
(fire), suggest that he was a significant deity in early Hinduism
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Naṟṟiṇai
NATRINAI (Tamil : நற்றிணை), a classical Tamil poetic work, is a book of Ettuthokai , a Sangam literature anthology. Natrinai contains 400 poems dealing with the five landscapes of Sangam poetry – kurinchi, mullai, marutham, neithal and paalai. This belongs to some of the oldest extant Tamil literature and is dated to belong to the Sangam age (100 BCE - 200 CE). The stanzas are of varying lengths of between nine and twelve lines each. The Pandya king Maaran Vazhuthi patronised this collection. It is not known who made this collection. COMPILATIONIt was compiled by Pāratam-pāṭiyap-Peruntēvanar under the patronage of Pandya king, King Māran Vazhuthi. Peruntēvanar also wrote an invocatory stanza after its compilation. Authors of 56 poems are not known. The names of 192 authors are known. Poem 234 is missing and considered extinct
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Didactic
DIDACTICISM is a philosophy that emphasizes instructional and informative qualities in literature and other types of art . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Examples * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading OVERVIEWThe term has its origin in the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word διδακτικός (didaktikos), "related to education and teaching", and signified learning in a fascinating and intriguing manner. Didactic art was meant both to entertain and to instruct. Didactic plays, for instance, were intended to convey a moral theme or other rich truth to the audience. An example of didactic writing is Alexander Pope
Alexander Pope
's An Essay on Criticism (1711), which offers a range of advice about critics and criticism. An example of didactism in music is the chant Ut queant laxis , which was used by Guido of Arezzo to teach solfege syllables
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NASA
The NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ( NASA
NASA
/ˈnæsə/ ) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program , as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
established NASA
NASA
in 1958 with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science . The National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Act was passed on July 29, 1958, disestablishing NASA's predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new agency became operational on October 1, 1958
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Fulbright Scholarship
The FULBRIGHT PROGRAM, including the FULBRIGHT–HAYS PROGRAM, is an American scholarship program of competitive, merit-based grants for international educational exchange for students, scholars, teachers, professionals, scientists and artists, founded by United States Senator J. William Fulbright
J. William Fulbright
in 1946. Under the Fulbright Program, competitively selected American citizens may become eligible for scholarships to study, conduct research, or exercise their talents abroad; and citizens of other countries may qualify to do the same in the United States
United States
of America. The program was established to increase mutual understanding between the people of the United States
United States
and other countries through the exchange of persons, knowledge, and skills. It is one of the most prestigious scholarships in the world
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Red Hen Press
RED HEN PRESS is an American non-profit press specializing in the publication of poetry, literary fiction, and nonfiction. Founded in 1994, Red Hen is now located in Pasadena , California
California
. The mission of Red Hen Press
Red Hen Press
is to publish work of literary excellence, support diversity, and promote literacy in the local schools and community. The press holds the belief that it is essential to our society to promote a readership that remains open and critically engaged in reading a variety of well-written, thought-provoking work. There are two imprints of Red Hen Press, Arktoi Books and Boreal Books
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Athiyaman
ATIKAMāṉ (also known as ADHIYAMāN, ADIGAMāN or SATYAPUTRA-ATIYāN) were a famous royal Tamil dynasty of the royal Velirs . These king-chiefs ruled from their capital Tagadur (Present day Dharmapuri )from at least the 3rd century BCE. The Velir royal house was one of the four kingdoms of Tamilakam
Tamilakam
, ruling parts of the Kongu Nadu
Kongu Nadu
. They were surrounded by the Cheras to the west and the Pandyas and Cholas to the east. The Atikamāṉs are mentioned in the Puranas
Puranas
as well as in ancient Tamil literature
Tamil literature

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Sangam Period
Maritime contacts Sangam period Tamilakam Cheras Ays Ezhil Malai Confluence of religions Venad - Kingdom of Quilon Calicut Kolattunadu Cochin Minor principalities Portuguese period Dutch period Rise of Travancore Mysorean interlude British Period Battle of Quilon Communism in Kerala Unification of Kerala
Kerala
Other topics Geography Economy Architecture Forts * v * t * e See also: First Sangam , Second Sangam , and Third Sangam SANGAM PERIOD (Tamil : சங்ககாலம், Sangakālam , Malayalam
Malayalam
: സംഘകാലം ? ) is the period in the history of ancient Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
(known as the Tamilakam) spanning from c. 4th century BC to c. 2nd century AD
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Kuṟuntokai
KURUNTHOGAI (Tamil : குறுந்தொகை), a classical Tamil poetic work, is the second book of Ettuthokai , a Sangam literature anthology. Kuruntokai contains poems dealing with matters of love and separation (அகம்) content matter and were written by numerous authors. Nachinarkiniyar, a Tamil scholar living during the sixth or the seventh century C.E. has annotated this work
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