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Autonomic Computing
Autonomic computing
Autonomic computing
(also known as AC) refers to the self-managing characteristics of distributed computing resources, adapting to unpredictable changes while hiding intrinsic complexity to operators and users. Initiated by IBM
IBM
in 2001, this initiative ultimately aimed to develop computer systems capable of self-management, to overcome the rapidly growing complexity of computing systems management, and to reduce the barrier that complexity poses to further growth.[1]Contents1 Description 2 Problem of growing complexity 3 Characteristics of autonomic systems 4 Evolutionary levels 5 Design patterns 6 Control loops 7 Conceptual model 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksDescription[edit] The AC system concept is designed to make adaptive decisions, using high-level policies. It will constantly check and optimize its status and automatically adapt itself to changing conditions
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Design Patterns
Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software is a software engineering book describing software design patterns. The book's authors are Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson and John Vlissides with a foreword by Grady Booch. The book is divided into two parts, with the first two chapters exploring the capabilities and pitfalls of object-oriented programming, and the remaining chapters describing 23 classic software design patterns. The book includes examples in C++
C++
and Smalltalk. It has been influential to the field of software engineering and is regarded as an important source for object-oriented design theory and practice. More than 500,000 copies have been sold in English and in 13 other languages
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Unsupervised Learning
Unsupervised machine learning is the machine learning task of inferring a function to describe hidden structure from "unlabeled" data (a classification or categorization is not included in the observations)
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Self-awareness
Self-awareness
Self-awareness
is the capacity for introspection and the ability to recognize oneself as an individual separate from the environment and other individuals.[1] It is not to be confused with consciousness in the sense of qualia. While consciousness is being aware of one's environment and body and lifestyle, self-awareness is the recognition of that awareness.[2] Self-awareness
Self-awareness
is how an individual consciously knows and understands his/her own character, feelings, motives, and desires
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Self-organization
Self-organization, also called spontaneous order (in the social sciences), is a process where some form of overall order arises from local interactions between parts of an initially disordered system. The process is spontaneous, not needing control by any external agent. It is often triggered by random fluctuations, amplified by positive feedback. The resulting organization is wholly decentralized, distributed over all the components of the system. As such, the organization is typically robust and able to survive or self-repair substantial perturbation. Chaos theory
Chaos theory
discusses self-organization in terms of islands of predictability in a sea of chaotic unpredictability. Self-organization
Self-organization
occurs in many physical, chemical, biological, robotic, and cognitive systems
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Self-assembly
Self-assembly
Self-assembly
is a process in which a disordered system of pre-existing components forms an organized structure or pattern as a consequence of specific, local interactions among the components themselves, without external direction. When the constitutive components are molecules, the process is termed molecular self-assembly. Self-assembly
Self-assembly
can be classified as either static or dynamic. In static self-assembly, the ordered state forms as a system approaches equilibrium, reducing its free energy. However, in dynamic self-assembly, patterns of pre-existing components organized by specific local interactions are not commonly described as "self-assembled" by scientists in the associated disciplines
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Self-replication
Self-replication
Self-replication
is any behavior of a dynamical system that yields construction of an identical copy of itself. Biological cells, given suitable environments, reproduce by cell division. During cell division, DNA
DNA
is replicated and can be transmitted to offspring during reproduction. Biological viruses can replicate, but only by commandeering the reproductive machinery of cells through a process of infection. Harmful prion proteins can replicate by converting normal proteins into rogue forms.[1] Computer viruses reproduce using the hardware and software already present on computers. Self-replication in robotics has been an area of research and a subject of interest in science fiction. Any self-replicating mechanism which does not make a perfect copy will experience genetic variation and will create variants of itself
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Reflection (computer Programming)
In computer science, reflection is the ability of a computer program to examine, introspect, and modify its own structure and behavior at runtime.[1]Contents1 Historical background 2 Uses 3 Implementation 4 Examples4.1 C# 4.2 Delphi 4.3 eC 4.4 ECMAScript 4.5 Go 4.6 Java 4.7 Objective-C 4.8 Perl 4.9 PHP 4.10 Python 4.11 R 4.12 Ruby5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistorical background[edit] The earliest computers were programmed in their native assembly language, which were inherently reflective, as these original architectures could be programmed by defining instructions as data and using self-modifying code
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Automaticity
Automaticity /ˌɔːtəməˈtɪsɪti/ is the ability to do things without occupying the mind with the low-level details required, allowing it to become an automatic response pattern or habit. It is usually the result of learning, repetition, and practice. Examples of tasks carried out by 'muscle memory' often involve some degree of automaticity. Examples of automaticity are common activities such as walking, speaking, bicycle-riding, assembly-line work, and driving a car (the last of these sometimes being termed "highway hypnosis")
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Adaptive
Adaptive behavior refers to behavior that enables a person (usually used in the context of children) to get along in his or her environment with greatest success and least conflict with others. This is a term used in the areas of psychology and special education. Adaptive behavior relates to every day skills or tasks that the average person is able to complete, similar to the term life skills. Nonconstructive or disruptive social or personal behaviors can sometimes be used to achieve a constructive outcome. For example, a constant repetitive action could be re-focused on something that creates or builds something. In other words, the behavior can be adapted to something else. In contrast, maladaptive behavior is a type of behavior that is often used to reduce one's anxiety, but the result is dysfunctional and non-productive
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Awareness
Awareness is the ability to directly know and perceive, to feel, or to be cognizant of events. More broadly, it is the state of being conscious of something.Contents1 Concept 2 Self-awareness 3 Neuroscience3.1 Basic awareness 3.2 Basic interests 3.3 Changes in awareness4 Living systems view 5 Communications and information systems 6 Covert awareness 7 Other uses 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksConcept[edit] Awareness is a relative concept. Awareness may be focused on an internal state, such as a visceral feeling, or on external events by way of sensory perception
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Model-view-controller
Model–view–controller (MVC) is an architectural pattern commonly used for developing user interfaces that divides an application into three interconnected parts
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Self-optimization
In cellular communications technology, self-optimization is a process in which the system’s settings are autonomously and continuously adapted to the traffic profile and the network environment in terms of topology, propagation and interference.[1] Together with self-planning and self-healing, self-optimization is one of the key pillars of the self-organizing networks (SON) management paradigm proposed by the Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance.[2] The autonomous trait of self-optimization involves no human intervention at all during the aforementioned optimization process. In the area of control engineering most compact controllers for the industrial sector include an automatic adjustment of the control parameters to the connected section. This function is called auto-tuning or self-optimization
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Separation Of Concerns
In computer science, separation of concerns (SoC) is a design principle for separating a computer program into distinct sections, such that each section addresses a separate concern. A concern is a set of information that affects the code of a computer program. A concern can be as general as the details of the hardware the code is being optimized for, or as specific as the name of a class to instantiate. A program that embodies SoC well is called a modular[1] program. Modularity, and hence separation of concerns, is achieved by encapsulating information inside a section of code that has a well-defined interface. Encapsulation is a means of information hiding.[2] Layered designs in information systems are another embodiment of separation of concerns (e.g., presentation layer, business logic layer, data access layer, persistence layer).[3] The value of separation of concerns is simplifying development and maintenance of computer programs
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Encapsulation (computer Programming)
In object oriented programming languages, encapsulation is used to refer to one of two related but distinct notions, and sometimes to the combination[1][2] thereof:A language mechanism for restricting direct access to some of the object's components.[3][4] A language construct that facilitates the bundling of data with the methods (or other functions) operating on that data.[5][6]Some programming language researchers and academics use the first meaning alone or in combination with the second as a distinguishing feature of object-oriented programming, while some programming languages that provide lexical closures view encapsulation as a feature of the language orthogonal to object orientation. The second definition is motivated by the fact that in many of the OOP languages hiding of components is not automatic or can be overridden; thus, information hiding is defined as a separate notion by those who prefer the second definition. The features of encapsulation are supported
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