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Austronesian Languages
The Austronesian
Austronesian
languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar
Madagascar
and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.[2] Austronesian
Austronesian
languages are spoken by about 386 million people (4.9%), making it the fourth-largest language family by number of speakers, behind the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
(46.3%), the Sino-Tibetan languages (20.4%), and the Niger-Congo languages
Niger-Congo languages
(6.9%). Major Austronesian
Austronesian
languages with the highest number of speakers are Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian), Javanese, and Filipino (Tagalog)
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Indigenous Language
An indigenous language or autochthonous language is a language that is native to a region and spoken by indigenous people, often reduced to the status of a minority language.[citation needed] This language would be from a linguistically distinct community that has been settled in the area for many generations. Indigenous languages are not necessarily national languages, and the reverse is also true. Many indigenous peoples worldwide have stopped passing on their ancestral languages to the next generation, and have instead adopted the majority language as part of their acculturation into the majority culture
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Easter Island
Easter
Easter
Island (Rapa Nui: Rapa Nui, Spanish: Isla de Pascua) is a Chilean island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle
Polynesian Triangle
in Oceania. Easter Island is famous for its 887 extant monumental statues, called moai, created by the early Rapa Nui
Rapa Nui
people. In 1995, UNESCO
UNESCO
named Easter Island a World Heritage Site, with much of the island protected within Rapa Nui
Rapa Nui
National Park. Polynesian people most likely settled on Easter
Easter
Island sometime between 700 and 1100 AD and created a thriving and industrious culture as evidenced by the island's numerous enormous stone moai and other artifacts
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ISO 639-5
ISO 639-5:2008 "Codes for the representation of names of languages—Part 5: Alpha-3 code for language families and groups" is a highly incomplete international standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO). It was developed by ISO Technical Committee 37, Subcommittee 2, and first published on May 15, 2008. It is part of the ISO 639 series of standards.Contents1 Collective codes 2 Relationship to other parts of ISO 639 3 History 4 Deficiencies 5 References 6 External linksCollective codes[edit] ISO 639-5 defines alpha-3 (3-letter) codes, called "collective codes," that identify language families and groups. As of August 29, 2008 update to ISO 639-5, the standard defined 114 collective codes
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Asia
Metropolitan areas of Asia List of cities in AsiaList Bangkok Beijing Busan Chittagong Delhi Dhaka Doha Dubai Guangzhou Hanoi Ho Chi Minh Hong Kong Istanbul Jakarta Karachi Kuala Lumpur Manila Mumbai Osaka Pyongyang Riyadh Shanghai Shenzhen Singapore Seoul Taipei[4] Tehran Tokyo Ulaanbaatar Asia
Asia
(/ˈeɪʒə, ˈeɪʃə/ ( listen)) is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe
Europe
and the continental landmass of Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia
with both Europe
Europe
and Africa
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Comparative Method (linguistics)
In linguistics, the comparative method is a technique for studying the development of languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages with common descent from a shared ancestor, in order to extrapolate back to infer the properties of that ancestor. The comparative method may be contrasted with the method of internal reconstruction, in which the internal development of a single language is inferred by the analysis of features within that language.[1] Ordinarily both methods are used together to reconstruct prehistoric phases of languages, to fill in gaps in the historical record of a language, to discover the development of phonological, morphological, and other linguistic systems, and to confirm or refute hypothesised relationships between languages. The comparative method was developed over the 19th century. Key contributions were made by the Danish scholars Rasmus Rask and Karl Verner and the German scholar Jacob Grimm
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Malay Archipelago
The Malay Archipelago
The Malay Archipelago
(Malaysian & Indonesian: Kepulauan Melayu/Nusantara, Filipino: Kapuluang Malay, Visayan: Kapupud-ang Malay) is the archipelago between mainland Indochina
Indochina
and Australia. It has also been called the Malay World, Indo-Australian Archipelago, East Indies, Nusantara, Spices Archipelago, and other names over time. The name was taken from the 19th-century European concept of a Malay race, later based on the distribution of Austronesian
Austronesian
languages.[4] Situated between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, the group of over 25,000 islands is the largest archipelago by area, and fourth by number of islands in the world
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Herman Neubronner Van Der Tuuk
Herman Neubronner van der Tuuk
Herman Neubronner van der Tuuk
(23 February 1824 – 17 August 1894) was a Bible
Bible
translator and linguist specialising in the languages of the Dutch East Indies.Contents1 Early years and studies 2 Linguistics
Linguistics
and linguistic politics in the East Indies 3 Linguist3.1 Language command 3.2 Methods and insights 3.3 Van der Tuuk's Laws4 Character and views4.1 Christianity 4.2 Conflict 4.3 Anecdotes5 Select bibliography5.1 Primary 5.2 Secondary6 NotesEarly years and studies[edit] Van der Tuuk was born in Malacca
Malacca
(part of the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
at that time), where his father, a Dutch lawyer, had settled and had married a half German and half Dutch Eurasian wife named Louisa. Her surname being Neubronner, it was added as a middle name to “Herman”
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Official Language
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically a country's official language refers to the language used within government (e.g., courts, parliament, administration).[1] Since "the means of expression of a people cannot be changed by any law",[2] the term "official language" does not typically refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government.[3] Worldwide, 178 countries have at least one official language, and 101 of these countries recognise more than one language. Many of the world's constitutions mention one or more official or national languages.[4][5] Some countries use the official language designation to empower indigenous groups by giving them access to the government in their native languages
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Sri Lanka
Coordinates: 7°N 81°E / 7°N 81°E / 7; 81Democratic Socialist Republic
Republic
of Sri Lanka ශ්‍රී ලංකා ප්‍රජාතාන්ත්‍රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය (Sinhalese) Srī Lankā prajātāntrika samājavādī janarajaya இலங்கை ஜனநாயக சோசலிச குடியரசு (Tamil) Ilaṅkai jaṉanāyaka sōsalisa kuṭiyarasuFlagEmblemAnthem: "Sri Lanka
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Pacific Ocean
The Pacific Ocean
Ocean
is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
in the north to the Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean
(or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) in the south and is bounded by Asia
Asia
and Australia
Australia
in the west and the Americas
Americas
in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers (63,800,000 square miles) in area (as defined with an Antarctic
Antarctic
southern border), this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined.[1] Both the center of the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
are in the Pacific Ocean
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Andaman Islands
The Andaman Islands
Andaman Islands
form an archipelago in the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
between India, to the west, and Myanmar, to the north and east
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Madagascar
Madagascar
Madagascar
(/ˌmædəˈɡæskər/; Malagasy: Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar
Madagascar
(Malagasy: Repoblikan'i Madagasikara [republiˈkʲan madaɡasˈkʲarə̥]; French: République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar
Madagascar
(the fourth-largest island in the world), and numerous smaller peripheral islands. Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, Madagascar
Madagascar
split from the Indian peninsula
Indian peninsula
around 88 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation. Consequently, Madagascar
Madagascar
is a biodiversity hotspot; over 90% of its wildlife is found nowhere else on Earth
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Wilhelm Von Humboldt
Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand von Humboldt (/ˈhʌmboʊlt/;[6] German: [ˈhʊmbɔlt]; 22 June 1767 – 8 April 1835) was a Prussian philosopher, linguist, government functionary, diplomat, and founder of the Humboldt University
Humboldt University
of Berlin, which was named after him in 1949 (and also after his younger brother, Alexander von Humboldt, a naturalist). He is especially remembered as a linguist who made important contributions to the philosophy of language and to the theory and practice of education
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Mainland Southeast Asia
Mainland Southeast Asia, also known as the Indochinese Peninsula and previously as Indochina, is the continental portion of Southeast Asia east of India and south of China that is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the west and the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
to the east.Contents1 Geography 2 Culture 3 Religion3.1 Islam3.1.1 Prevalence4 See also 5 ReferencesGeography[edit] The Indochinese Peninsula projects southward from the Asian continent proper. It contains several mountain ranges extending from the Tibetan Plateau in the north, interspersed with lowlands largely drained by three major river systems running in a north–south direction: the Irrawaddy (serving Myanmar), the Chao Phraya (in Thailand), and the Mekong
Mekong
(flowing through Northeastern Thailand, Laos, Cambodia
Cambodia
and Vietnam)
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