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Alkene
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.[1] The words alkene and olefin are often used interchangeably (see nomenclature section below). Acyclic alkenes, with only one double bond and no other functional groups, known as mono-enes, form a homologous series of hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n.[2] Alkenes have two hydrogen atoms fewer than the corresponding alkane (with the same number of carbon atoms)
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Electrophilic Addition
In organic chemistry, an electrophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where, in a chemical compound, a π bond is broken and two new σ bonds are formed. The substrate of an electrophilic addition reaction must have a double bond or triple bond.[1] The driving force for this reaction is the formation of an electrophile X+ that forms a covalent bond with an electron-rich unsaturated C=C bond. The positive charge on X is transferred to the carbon-carbon bond, forming a carbocation during the formation of the C-X bond.In step 2 of an electrophilic addition, the positively charged intermediate combines with (Y) that is electron-rich and usually an anion to form the second covalent bond. Step 2 is the same nucleophilic attack process found in an SN1 reaction
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Electron
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol e− or β−, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.[8] Electrons belong to the first generation of the lepton particle family,[9] and are generally thought to be elementary particles because they have no known components or substructure.[1] The electron has a mass that is approximately 1/1836 that of the proton.[10] Quantum mechanical properties of the electron include an intrinsic angular momentum (spin) of a half-integer value, expressed in units of the reduced Planck constant, ħ. As it is a fermion, no two electrons can occupy the same quantum state, in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle.[9] Like all elementary particles, electrons exhibit properties of both particles and waves: they can collide with other particles and can be diffracted like light
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Orbital Hybridization
In chemistry, orbital hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory. Hybrid orbitals are very useful in the explanation of molecular geometry and atomic bonding properties
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Isomer
An isomer (/ˈaɪsəmər/; from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos = "equal", méros = "part") is a molecule with the same molecular formula as another molecule, but with a different chemical structure. Isomers contain the same number of atoms of each element, but have different arrangements of their atoms.[1][2] Isomers do not necessarily share similar properties, unless they also have the same functional groups
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E-Z Notation
E-Z configuration, or the E-Z convention, is the IUPAC
IUPAC
preferred method of describing the absolute stereochemistry of double bonds in organic chemistry
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Pyramidalization
In chemistry, trigonal planar is a molecular geometry model with one atom at the center and three atoms at the corners of an equilateral triangle, called peripheral atoms, all in one plane.[1] In an ideal trigonal planar species, all three ligands are identical and all bond angles are 120°. Such species belong to the point group D3h. Molecules where the three ligands are not identical, such as H2CO, deviate from this idealized geometry. Examples of molecules with trigonal planar geometry include boron trifluoride (BF3), formaldehyde (H2CO), phosgene (COCl2), and sulfur trioxide (SO3). Some ions with trigonal planar geometry include nitrate (NO− 3), carbonate (CO2− 3), and guanidinium (C(NH 2)+ 3)
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Cyclooctene
Cyclooctene
Cyclooctene
is a cycloalkene with an eight-membered ring. It is notable because it is the smallest cycloalkene that can exist as either the cis- or trans-isomer with the cis-isomer more common. Its most stable cis stereoisomer can adopt various conformations, the most stable one being shaped like a ribbon;[1] its most stable trans-conformer is shaped like the 8-carbon equivalent chair conformation of cyclohexane. See also[edit]cis-Cyclooctene trans-CycloocteneReferences[edit]^ Neuenschwander, Ulrich; Hermans, Ive (2011). "The Conformations of Cyclooctene: Consequences for Epoxidation Chemistry". J. Org. Chem. 76 (24): 10236–10240
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Dihedral Angle
A dihedral angle is the angle between two intersecting planes. In chemistry it is the angle between planes through two sets of three atoms, having two atoms in common. In solid geometry it is defined as the union of a line and two half-planes that have this line as a common edge
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VSEPR Theory
Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory is a model used in chemistry to predict the geometry of individual molecules from the number of electron pairs surrounding their central atoms.[1] It is also named the Gillespie-Nyholm theory after its two main developers, Ronald Gillespie and Ronald Nyholm. The acronym "VSEPR" is pronounced either "ves-pur"[2]:410 or "vuh-seh-per".[3] The premise of VSEPR is that the valence electron pairs surrounding an atom tend to repel each other and will, therefore, adopt an arrangement that minimizes this repulsion, thus determining the molecule's geometry
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Molecular Geometry
Molecular geometry
Molecular geometry
is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule. It includes the general shape of the molecule as well as bond lengths, bond angles, torsional angles and any other geometrical parameters that determine the position of each atom. Molecular geometry
Molecular geometry
influences several properties of a substance including its reactivity, polarity, phase of matter, color, magnetism and biological activity.[1][2][3] The angles between bonds that an atom forms depend only weakly on the rest of molecule, i.e
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Ångström
The ångström (/ˈæŋstrəm, -strʌm/,[1][2]ANG-strəm; ANG-strum Swedish: [²ɔŋstrœm])[1] or angstrom is a unit of length equal to 6990100000000000000♠10−10 m (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre. Its symbol is Å, a letter in the Swedish alphabet. The natural sciences and technology often use ångström to express sizes of atoms, molecules, microscopic biological structures, and lengths of chemical bonds, arrangement of atoms in crystals, wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, and dimensions of integrated circuit parts. Atoms of phosphorus, sulfur, and chlorine are about an ångström in covalent radius, while a hydrogen atom is about half an ångström; see atomic radius. Visible light
Visible light
has wavelengths in the range of 4000–7000 Å. The unit is named after the Swedish physicist Anders Jonas Ångström (1814–1874). The symbol is always written with a ring diacritic, as the letter in the Swedish alphabet
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Bond Angle
Molecular geometry
Molecular geometry
is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule. It includes the general shape of the molecule as well as bond lengths, bond angles, torsional angles and any other geometrical parameters that determine the position of each atom. Molecular geometry
Molecular geometry
influences several properties of a substance including its reactivity, polarity, phase of matter, color, magnetism and biological activity.[1][2][3] The angles between bonds that an atom forms depend only weakly on the rest of molecule, i.e
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Steric Strain
In chemistry, van der Waals strain is strain resulting from van der Waals repulsion when two substituents in a molecule approach each other with a distance less than the sum of their van der Waals radii. Van der Waals strain is also called van der Waals repulsion and is related to steric hindrance.[1] One of the most common forms of this strain is eclipsing hydrogen, in Alkanes. In rotational and pseudorotational mechanisms[edit] In molecules whose vibrational mode involves a rotational or pseudorotational mechanism (such as the Berry mechanism or the Bartell mechanism),[2] van der Waals strain can cause significant differences in potential energy, even between molecules with identical geometry. PF5, for example, has significantly lower potential energy than PCl5. Despite their identical trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry, the higher electron count of chlorine as compared to fluorine causes a potential energy spike as the molecule enters its intermediate in the mechanism and the s
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Nonbonded Interactions
Intermolecular forces (IMF) are the forces which mediate interaction between molecules, including forces of attraction or repulsion which act between molecules and other types of neighboring particles, e.g., atoms or ions. Intermolecular forces are weak relative to intramolecular forces – the forces which hold a molecule together. For example, the covalent bond, involving sharing electron pairs between atoms, is much stronger than the forces present between neighboring molecules. Both sets of forces are essential parts of force fields frequently used in molecular mechanics. The investigation of intermolecular forces starts from macroscopic observations which indicate the existence and action of forces at a molecular level
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Bredt's Rule
Bredt's rule is an empirical observation in organic chemistry that states that a double bond cannot be placed at the bridgehead of a bridged ring system, unless the rings are large enough
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