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Aldose-ketose Isomerization
In carbohydrate chemistry, the Lobry de Bruyn–van Ekenstein transformation also known as the Lobry de Bruyn–Alberda–van Ekenstein transformation is the base or acid catalyzed transformation of an aldose into the ketose isomer or vice versa, with a tautomeric enediol as reaction intermediate. Ketoses may be transformed into 3-ketoses, etcetera. The enediol is also an intermediate for the epimerization of an aldose or ketose
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Carbohydrate Chemistry
Carbohydrate
Carbohydrate
chemistry is a subdiscipline of chemistry primarily concerned with the synthesis, structure, and function of carbohydrates
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Concentration
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture. Several types of mathematical description can be distinguished: mass concentration, molar concentration, number concentration, and volume concentration.[1] The term concentration can be applied to any kind of chemical mixture, but most frequently it refers to solutes and solvents in solutions
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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Mannose
Mannose, packaged as the nutritional supplement "d-mannose", is a sugar monomer of the aldohexose series of carbohydrates. Mannose
Mannose
is a C-2 epimer of glucose. Mannose
Mannose
is important in human metabolism, especially in the glycosylation of certain proteins. Several congenital disorders of glycosylation are associated with mutations in enzymes involved in mannose metabolism.[1] Mannose
Mannose
is not an essential nutrient; it can be produced in the human body from glucose, or converted into glucose. Mannose
Mannose
provides 2-5 kilocalories per gram
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Epimer
In stereochemistry, an epimer is one of a pair of stereoisomers. The two isomers differ in configuration at only one stereogenic center. All other stereocenters in the molecules, if any, are the same in each. Doxorubicin
Doxorubicin
and epirubicin are two epimers that are used as drugs.Doxorubicin–epirubicin comparisonExamples[edit] The sugars glucose and galactose are epimers. In glucose, the -OH group on the first carbon is in the axial position, the direction opposite the -OH group on carbon C-4. In galactose, the -OH group is oriented in the same direction, the equatorial position.[1] In cyclical compounds like these, the -OH group on C-1 may lie in opposite directions as well. This structural difference distinguishes two anomers
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Enol
Enols, or more formally, alkenols, are a type of reactive structure or intermediate in organic chemistry that is represented as an alkene (olefin) with a hydroxyl group attached to one end of the alkene double bond. The terms enol and alkenol are portmanteaus deriving from "-ene"/"alkene" and the "-ol" suffix indicating the hydroxyl group of alcohols, dropping the terminal "-e" of the first term. Generation of enols often involves removal of a hydrogen adjacent (α-) to the carbonyl group—i.e., deprotonation, its removal as a proton, H+. When this proton is not returned at the end of the stepwise process, the result is an anion termed an enolate (see images at right). The enolate structures shown are schematic; a more modern representation considers the molecular orbitals that are formed and occupied by electrons in the enolate
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Stereochemical
Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms that form the structure of molecules and their manipulation. The study of stereochemistry focuses on stereoisomers, which by definition have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space. For this reason, it is also known as 3D chemistry—the prefix "stereo-" means "three-dimensionality".[1] An important branch of stereochemistry is the study of chiral molecules.[2] Stereochemistry
Stereochemistry
spans the entire spectrum of organic, inorganic, biological, physical and especially supramolecular chemistry
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Fructose
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide, sucrose. It is one of the three dietary monosaccharides, along with glucose and galactose, that are absorbed directly into blood during digestion. Fructose
Fructose
was discovered by French chemist Augustin-Pierre Dubrunfaut in 1847.[4][5] The name “fructose” was coined in 1857 by the English chemist, William Allen Miller.[6] Pure, dry fructose is a sweet, white, odorless, crystalline solid, and is the most water-soluble of all the sugars.[7] Fructose
Fructose
is found in honey, tree and vine fruits, flowers, berries, and most root vegetables. Commercially, fructose is derived from sugar cane, sugar beets, and maize. Crystalline fructose
Crystalline fructose
is the monosaccharide, dried, ground, and of high purity
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Glucose
Glucose
Glucose
is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6, which means that it is a molecule that is made of six carbon atoms, twelve hydrogen atoms, and six oxygen atoms. Glucose
Glucose
circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. It is made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. It is the most important source of energy for cellular respiration. Glucose
Glucose
is stored as a polymer, in plants as starch and in animals as glycogen. With six carbon atoms, it is classed as a hexose, a subcategory of the monosaccharides. D- Glucose
Glucose
is one of the sixteen aldohexose stereoisomers. The D-isomer, D-glucose, also known as dextrose, occurs widely in nature, but the L-isomer, L-glucose, does not
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Stereocenter
In a molecule, a stereocenter is a particular instance of a stereogenic element that is geometrically a point. A stereocenter or stereogenic center is any point in a molecule, though not necessarily an atom, bearing groups, such that an interchanging of any two groups leads to a stereoisomer.[1] The term stereocenter was introduced in 1984 by Kurt Mislow and Jay Siegel.[2] A chiral center is a stereocenter consisting of an atom holding a set of ligands (atoms or groups of atoms) in a spatial arrangement which is not superimposable on its mirror image
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Deprotonation
Deprotonation
Deprotonation
is the removal (transfer) of a proton (a hydrogen cation, H+) from a Bronsted–Lowry acid in an acid-base reaction. The species formed is the conjugate base of that acid. The complementary process, when a proton is added (transferred) to a Bronsted–Lowry base, is protonation. The species formed is the conjugate acid of that base. A species that can either accept or donate a proton is referred to as amphiprotic. An example is the H2O (water) molecule, which can gain a proton to form the hydronium ion, H3O+, or lose a proton, leaving the hydroxide ion, OH−. The relative ability of a molecule to give up a proton is measured by its pKa value. A low pKa value indicates that the compound is acidic and will easily give up its proton to a base. The pKa of a compound is determined by many things, but the most significant is the stability of the conjugate base
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Alpha-ketol Rearrangement
The α-ketol rearrangement is the acid-, base-, or heat-induced 1,2-migration
1,2-migration
of an alkyl or aryl group in an α-hydroxy ketone or aldehyde to give an isomeric product.[1]Contents1 Introduction 2 Mechanism and stereochemistry2.1 Prevailing mechanism 2.2 Enantioselective variants3 Scope and limitations 4 Comparison with other methods 5 Experimental conditions and procedure5.1 Typical conditions6 ReferencesIntroduction[edit] Like other ketogenic rearrangements, the α-ketol rearrangement involves the transformation of an alkoxide into a carbonyl group with concomitant movement of the bonding electrons of the migrating group towards an adjacent trigonal center. A distinctive feature of this particular rearrangement, however, is its reversibility—as a result, the more stable α-hydroxy carbonyl compound is favored
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Temperature
Temperature
Temperature
is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold. Temperature
Temperature
is measured with a thermometer, historically calibrated in various temperature scales and units of measurement. The most commonly used scales are the Celsius
Celsius
scale, denoted in °C (informally, degrees centigrade), the Fahrenheit scale
Fahrenheit scale
(°F), and the Kelvin
Kelvin
scale. The kelvin (K) is the unit of temperature in the International System of Units (SI), in which temperature is one of the seven fundamental base quantities. The coldest theoretical temperature is absolute zero, at which the thermal motion of all fundamental particles in matter reaches a minimum. Although classically described as motionless, particles still possess a finite zero-point energy in the quantum mechanical description
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PH
In chemistry, pH (/piːˈeɪtʃ/) (potential of hydrogen) is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. It is approximately the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the molar concentration, measured in units of moles per liter, of hydrogen ions. More precisely it is the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the activity of the hydrogen ion.[1] Solutions with a pH less than 7 are acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic
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Solvent
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution. A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid, a gas, or a supercritical fluid. The quantity of solute that can dissolve in a specific volume of solvent varies with temperature. Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning (e.g. tetrachloroethylene), as paint thinners (e.g. toluene, turpentine), as nail polish removers and glue solvents (acetone, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate), in spot removers (e.g. hexane, petrol ether), in detergents (citrus terpenes) and in perfumes (ethanol). Water is a solvent for polar molecules and the most common solvent used by living things; all the ions and proteins in a cell are dissolved in water within a cell
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