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Afan Valley
The River
River
Afan (Welsh: Afon Afan) is a river in Wales
Wales
whose river valley formed the territory of the medieval Lords of Afan. The Afan Valley encompasses the upper reaches of the river. The valley is traversed by the A4107 Afan Valley Road. Settlements in the area include Cwmafan, Pwll-y-glaw and Cymmer. The town of Aberavon
Aberavon
grew up on the banks of the river, and was later subsumed by the larger centre of population known as Port Talbot. The political constituency still retains the name Aberavon
Aberavon
(aber meaning mouth of a river).Contents1 Etymology 2 Course 3 Geography 4 Industrial past 5 Tributaries5.1 Afon Corrwg 5.2 Afon Gwynfi 5.3 River
River
Pelenna 5.4 Nant Ffrwdwyllt6 References 7 External linksEtymology[edit] The river's name is old and there is no definite agreement on its origin
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Saint Afan
Saint Afan
Saint Afan
of Builth
Builth
(Welsh: Sant Afan Buellt; Latin: Avanus) was an early 6th-century Welsh bishop, martyr, and saint. His feast day is generally placed on 17 November, although the Demetian Calendar formerly used in southern Wales
Wales
placed it on the 16th;[1] it is no longer observed by either the Anglican[2] or Catholic church in Wales.[3]Name[edit] Afan as a man's name in Wales
Wales
is probably a loan from the Latin Amandus.[1] In Welsh, he is sometimes known as Esgob Afan ("Bishop Afan") from his title and as Afan Buellt or Buallt from his diocese around Builth
Builth
in Brycheiniog.[1] Life[edit] Saint Afan
Saint Afan
was the son of Cedig ap Ceredig, son of Cunedda Wledig, king of Gwynedd.[4][5] Through this line, he was a cousin of Saint David, patron saint of Wales
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Acid Mine Drainage
Acid
Acid
mine drainage, acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD), or acid rock drainage (ARD) is the outflow of acidic water from metal mines or coal mines. Acid
Acid
rock drainage occurs naturally within some environments as part of the rock weathering process but is exacerbated by large-scale earth disturbances characteristic of mining and other large construction activities, usually within rocks containing an abundance of sulfide minerals. Areas where the earth has been disturbed (e.g. construction sites, subdivisions, and transportation corridors) may create acid rock drainage. In many localities, the liquid that drains from coal stocks, coal handling facilities, coal washeries, and coal waste tips can be highly acidic, and in such cases it is treated as acid rock drainage. This liquid often contains toxic metals, such as copper or iron
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Coal Mining
Coal
Coal
mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground. Coal
Coal
is valued for its energy content, and, since the 1880s, has been widely used to generate electricity. Steel
Steel
and cement industries use coal as a fuel for extraction of iron from iron ore and for cement production. In the United Kingdom and South Africa, a coal mine and its structures are a colliery, a coal mine a pit, and the above-ground structures the pit head. In Australia, "colliery" generally refers to an underground coal mine. In the United States, "colliery" has been used to describe a coal mine operation but nowadays the word is not commonly used. Coal
Coal
mining has had many developments over the recent years, from the early days of men tunnelling, digging and manually extracting the coal on carts, to large open cut and long wall mines
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Salmon
Salmon
Salmon
/ˈsæmən/ is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae. Other fish in the same family include trout, char, grayling and whitefish. Salmon
Salmon
are native to tributaries of the North Atlantic (genus Salmo) and Pacific Ocean (genus Oncorhynchus). Many species of salmon have been introduced into non-native environments such as the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
of North America and Patagonia
Patagonia
in South America. Salmon
Salmon
are intensively farmed in many parts of the world. Typically, salmon are anadromous: they hatch in fresh water, migrate to the ocean, then return to fresh water to reproduce. However, populations of several species are restricted to fresh water through their lives
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Trout
Trout
Trout
is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus, Salmo
Salmo
and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae
Salmoninae
of the family Salmonidae
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Weir
A weir /wɪər/ or low head dam is a barrier across the horizontal width of a river that alters the flow characteristics of the water and usually results in a change in the height of the river level
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Fish Ladder
A fish ladder, also known as a fishway, fish pass or fish steps, is a structure on or around artificial and natural barriers (such as dams, locks and waterfalls) to facilitate diadromous fishes' natural migration.[1] Most fishways enable fish to pass around the barriers by swimming and leaping up a series of relatively low steps (hence the term ladder) into the waters on the other side. The velocity of water falling over the steps has to be great enough to attract the fish to the ladder, but it cannot be so great that it washes fish back downstream or exhausts them to the point of inability to continue their journey upriver.Contents1 History 2 Types 3 Effectiveness 4 Culverts 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit]Denil Fishway on Salmon
Salmon
Creek, MontanaWritten reports of rough fishways date to 17th-century France, where bundles of branches were used to create steps in steep channels to bypass obstructions
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Glyn-neath
Glynneath (Welsh: Glyn-nedd), also spelled Glyn Neath, is a small town, community and electoral ward lying on the River Neath in the county borough of Neath Port Talbot, Wales. It was formerly in the historic county of Glamorgan. Glynneath ward covers only part of the community, with some 840 electors included in the neighbouring ward of Blaengwrach. Industrialisation reached Glynneath when coal mining started in 1793, and rapidly expanded when the Neath Canal came to the village in 1775. Many features of the old canal still survive to the present time.[2] There are waterfalls to the north east at Pontneddfechan near the Brecon Beacons and large parts of the rural area are heavily forested.Contents1 Notable buildings 2 Sports and leisure 3 Notable residents 4 Twin Town 5 External links 6 ReferencesNotable buildings[edit]The ruins of the Grade II listed Aberpergwm HouseGodfrey Avenue in GlynneathGlynneath is home to the ruins of Aberpergwm House
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Waterfalls
A waterfall is a place where water flows over a vertical drop or a series of steep drops in the course of a stream or river. Waterfalls also occur where meltwater drops over the edge of a tabular iceberg or ice shelf.Contents1 Formation 2 Researchers 3 Types 4 Examples 5 Image gallery 6 See also 7 ReferencesFormation[edit]Formation of a waterfallWaterfalls are commonly formed in the upper course of a river in steep mountains.[1] Because of their landscape position, many waterfalls occur over bedrock fed by little contributing area, so may be ephemeral and flow only during rainstorms or significant snowmelt. The further downstream, the more perennial a waterfall can be. Waterfalls can have a wide range of widths and depths, and this diversity is part of what makes them such a charismatic and interesting natural phenomenon
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Blaengwynfi
Blaengwynfi is a village in the Neath Port Talbot
Neath Port Talbot
area of South Wales. It is a part of the "Upper Afan Valleys". It used to be a coal mining village, and is directly below Abergwynfi. The source of the River Afan is at the top of the nearby mountain. Blaengwynfi is the home to local football team Gwynfi United. References[edit]External links[edit]www.geograph.co.uk : photos of Blaengwynfi and surrounding area grid reference SS891965Coordinates: 51°39′23″N 3°36′16″W / 51.65631°N 3.60458°W / 51.65631; -3.60458This Neath Port Talbot
Neath Port Talbot
location article is a stub
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Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
(OS) is a national mapping agency in the United Kingdom which covers the island of Great Britain.[1] It is one of the world's largest producers of maps. Since 1 April 2015 it has operated as Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
Ltd, a government-owned company, 100% in public ownership. The Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
Board remains accountable to the Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. It is also a member of the Public Data Group. The agency's name indicates its original military purpose (see ordnance and surveying), which was to map Scotland
Scotland
in the wake of the Jacobite rising of 1745
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Alkaline
In chemistry, an alkali (/ˈælkəlaɪ/; from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element. An alkali also can be defined as a base that dissolves in water. A solution of a soluble base has a pH greater than 7.0. The adjective alkaline is commonly, and alkalescent less often, used in English as a synonym for basic, especially for bases soluble in water
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Environment Agency
The Environment Agency
Environment Agency
(EA) is a non-departmental public body, established in 1995 and sponsored by the United Kingdom government's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
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Coal
Coal
Coal
is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal
Coal
is composed primarily of carbon, along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen.[1] Coal
Coal
is a fossil fuel that forms when dead plant matter is converted into peat, which in turn is converted into lignite, then sub-bituminous coal, after that bituminous coal, and lastly anthracite. This involves biological and geological processes
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Constructed Wetland
A constructed wetland (CW) is an artificial wetland to treat municipal or industrial wastewater, greywater or stormwater runoff. It may also be designed for land reclamation after mining, or as a mitigation step for natural areas lost to land development. Constructed wetlands are engineered systems that use natural functions vegetation, soil, and organisms to treat wastewater. Depending on the type of wastewater the design of the constructed wetland has to be adjusted accordingly. Constructed wetlands have been used to treat both centralized and on-site wastewater
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