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Zyanon Paznyak
Zianon Stanislavavich Pazniak (Belarusian: Зянон Станіслававіч Пазьняк, born 24 April 1944) is a Belarusian nationalist[1] politician, one of the founders of the Belarusian Popular Front
Belarusian Popular Front
and leader of the Conservative Christian Party – BPF. He has lived in emigration since 1996.Contents1 Biography 2 Criticism 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Zianon Pazniak
Zianon Pazniak
was born in the village of Subotniki in Baranavichy Voblast (present-day Hrodna Region). He graduated from the Belarusian State Institute of Theatre and Arts in 1967 and completed his postgraduate studies at the Institute of Ethnography, Art and Folklore in 1972. Upon completion of his university studies, Pazniak worked as an arts researcher
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Supreme Soviet Of Belarus
The Supreme Council of Belarus
Belarus
(1991–1996) was the immediate continuation of the Supreme Soviet of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR Supreme Soviet) (1938–1991), which in its turn was the successor of the Central Executive Committee of Byelorussian SSR
Byelorussian SSR
(1920–1938), and all of them were the highest organs of state power in Belarus
Belarus
during 1920–1990.[1] During 1990–1996 it functioned as permanent parliament. Since 1994 the head of state has been President of Belarus, with the executive power being the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus
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KGB
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (Russian: Комите́т госуда́рственной безопа́сности (КГБ), IPA: [kəmʲɪˈtʲet ɡəsʊˈdarstvʲɪnːəj bʲɪzɐˈpasnəsʲtʲɪ] ( listen)), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1954 until its break-up in 1991. As a direct successor of such preceding agencies as Cheka, NKGB, NKVD
NKVD
and MGB, a committee was attached to the Council of Ministers. It was the chief government agency of "union-republican jurisdiction", acting as internal security, intelligence and secret police
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Revolutions Of 1989
The Revolutions of 1989
Revolutions of 1989
formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe
Central and Eastern Europe
and beyond. The period is sometimes called the Autumn of Nations,[4][5][6][7][8] a play on the term "Spring of Nations" that is sometimes used to describe the Revolutions of 1848. The events of the full-blown revolution began in Poland
Poland
in 1989[9][10] and continued in Hungary, East Germany, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and Romania
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Era Of Stagnation
The Era of Stagnation
Era of Stagnation
(Russian: Период застоя, Stagnation Period, also called the Brezhnevian Stagnation) was the period in the history of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
which began during the rule of Leonid Brezhnev (1964–1982) and continued under Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1982–1984) and Konstantin Chernenko
Konstantin Chernenko
(1984–1985).[1] The term "Era of Stagnation" was coined by Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
in order to describe the negative way in which he viewed the economic, political, and social policies of the period.[2] The 1964–82 period in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
began hopefully but devolved into disillusionment
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Communism
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin
Latin
communis, "common, universal")[1][2] is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money[3][4] and the state.[5][6] Communism
Communism
includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism
Marxism
and anarchism (anarcho-communism), as well as the political ideologies grouped around both. All of these share the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism; that in this system there are two major social classes; that conflict between these two classes is the root of all problems in society; and that this situation will ultimately be resolved through a social revolution
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Anti-communism
Anti-communism
Anti-communism
is opposition to communism. Organized anti-communism developed after the 1917 October Revolution
Revolution
in Russia and it reached global dimensions during the Cold War, when the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
engaged in an intense rivalry. Anti-communism
Anti-communism
has been an element of movements holding many different political positions, including nationalist, social democratic, liberal, conservative, fascist, capitalist, anarchist and even socialist viewpoints. The first organization specifically dedicated to opposing communism was the Russian White movement, which fought in the Russian Civil War starting in 1918 against the recently established Communist government
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Criticism Of Communist Party Rule
The actions and ideas of communist one-party states ruled by parties that identify their official ideology as Marxism–Leninism
Marxism–Leninism
have been subject to a range of criticism.[1] Critics argue that unlike liberal democracy and autocratic rule, communist party rule “offers a vision of an unachievable perfect future”. Communism
Communism
claims to represent a universal truth as in reality it is an incomplete ideology that suppresses essential socio-economic aspects
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Eastern Bloc
The Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the countries of the
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Eastern Bloc Economies
The Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the countries of the
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Eastern Bloc Politics
Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
politics followed the Red Army's occupation of much of eastern Europe at the end of World War II
World War II
and the Soviet Union's installation of Soviet-controlled Stalinist
Stalinist
or Marxist–Leninist governments in the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
through a process of bloc politics and repression. The resulting governments contained vestiges of western democracies to initially conceal the process.[1] Once in power, each country's Soviet-controlled communist party took permanent control of the administration, political organs, police, societal organizations and economic structures to ensure that no effective opposition could arise and to control socioeconomic and political life therein
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Eastern Bloc Media And Propaganda
Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
media and propaganda was controlled directly by each country's Communist
Communist
party, which controlled the state media, censorship and propaganda organs. State and party ownership of print, television and radio media served as an important manner in which to control information and society in light of Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
leaderships viewing even marginal groups of opposition intellectuals as a potential threat to the bases underlying Communist
Communist
power therein. Circumvention of dissemination controls occurred to some degree through samizdat and limited reception of western radio and television broadcasts
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Eastern Bloc Emigration And Defection
Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
emigration and defection was a point of controversy during the Cold War. After World War II, emigration restrictions were imposed by countries in the Eastern Bloc, which consisted of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and its satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe. Legal emigration was in most cases only possible in order to reunite families or to allow members of minority ethnic groups to return to their homelands. Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
governments argued that strict limits to emigration were necessary to prevent a brain drain. The United States and Western European governments argued that they represented a violation of human rights
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Nomenklatura
The nomenklatura (Russian: номенклату́ра, IPA: [nəmʲɪnklɐˈturə]; Latin: nomenclatura) were a category of people within the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and other Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries who held various key administrative positions in the bureaucracy, running all spheres of those countries' activity: government, industry, agriculture, education, etc., whose positions were granted only with approval by the communist party of each country or region. Virtually all members of the nomenklatura were members of the Communist Party.[1] Critics of Stalin, such as Milovan Đilas, critically defined them as a new class.[2] Trotsky used the term caste rather than class, because he saw the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as a degenerated workers' state, not a new class society
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Shortage Economy
Shortage economy
Shortage economy
(Polish: gospodarka niedoboru, Hungarian: hiánygazdaság) is a term coined by the Hungarian economist, János Kornai. He used this term to criticize the old centrally-planned economies of the communist states of the Eastern Bloc. In his article Economics of Shortage (1980), János Kornai argued that the chronic shortages seen throughout Central and Eastern Europe
Central and Eastern Europe
in the late 1970s (and which continued during the 1980s) were not the consequences of planners' errors or the wrong prices, but rather systemic flaws. A shortage of a certain item does not necessarily mean that the item is not being produced; rather, it means that the amount of the good demanded exceeds the amount supplied at a given price (see Supply and demand)
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