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Zagros Mountains
The ZAGROS MOUNTAINS (Persian : رشته كوه زاگرس‎‎, Kurdish : زنجیره‌چیای زاگرۆس‎; Çiyayên Zagrosê, Luri : کو یه لی زاگروس, Syriac : ܛܘ̣ܪܵܢܹܐ ܕܙܵܓܪܘ̇ܣ‎, Arabic
Arabic
: جبال زغروس ‎‎ Aramaic : ܛܘܪ ܙܪܓܣ,) form the largest mountain range in Iran
Iran
, Iraq
Iraq
and southeastern Turkey
Turkey
. This mountain range has a total length of 1,500 km (932 mi). The Zagros mountain range begins in northwestern Iran
Iran
and roughly corresponds to Iran's western border, and it spans the whole length of the western and southwestern Iranian plateau , ending at the Strait of Hormuz
Strait of Hormuz

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Sedimentary Rock
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth\'s surface and within bodies of water. Sedimentation is the collective name for processes that cause mineral and/or organic particles (detritus ) to settle in place. The particles that form a sedimentary rock by accumulating are called sediment . Before being deposited, the sediment was formed by weathering and erosion from the source area, and then transported to the place of deposition by water , wind , ice , mass movement or glaciers , which are called agents of denudation . Sedimentation may also occur as minerals precipitate from water solution or shells of aquatic creatures settle out of suspension
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Mudstone
CONTENTS * 1 Siliciclastic mudstone * 2 Carbonate mudstone * 2.1 The identification of carbonate mudstone * 3 Mudstone
Mudstone
Mineralogy
Mineralogy
on Mars
Mars
* 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 References SILICICLASTIC MUDSTONE Mudstone
Mudstone
formation on Lyme Regis East Beach MUDSTONE, a type of mudrock , is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds . Grain size is up to 0.0625 mm (0.0025 in) with individual grains too small to be distinguished without a microscope. With increased pressure over time, the platey clay minerals may become aligned, with the appearance of fissility or parallel layering. This finely bedded material that splits readily into thin layers is called shale , as distinct from mudstone
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Siltstone
SILTSTONE is a sedimentary rock which has a grain size in the silt range, finer than sandstone and coarser than claystones . DESCRIPTION Siltstone
Siltstone
is a clastic sedimentary rock. As its name implies, it is primarily composed (greater than 2/3) of silt sized particles, defined as grains 2–62 µm or 4 to 8 on the Krumbein phi (φ) scale. Siltstones differ significantly from sandstones due to their smaller pores and higher propensity for containing a significant clay fraction. Although often mistaken as a shale , siltstone lacks the fissility and laminations which are typical of shale. Siltstones may contain concretions . Unless the siltstone is fairly shaly, stratification is likely to be obscure and it tends to weather at oblique angles unrelated to bedding
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Limestone
LIMESTONE is a sedimentary rock , composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral , forams and molluscs . Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite , which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone
Limestone
has numerous uses: as a building material , an essential component of concrete ( Portland cement
Portland cement
), as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints , as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime , as a soil conditioner , or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens
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Friction
FRICTION is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other. There are several types of friction: * DRY FRICTION is a force that opposes the relative lateral motion of two solid surfaces in contact. Dry friction is subdivided into static friction ("stiction ") between non-moving surfaces, and kinetic friction between moving surfaces. With the exception of atomic or molecular friction, dry friction generally arises from the interaction of surface features, known as asperities * FLUID FRICTION describes the friction between layers of a viscous fluid that are moving relative to each other. * LUBRICATED FRICTION is a case of fluid friction where a lubricant fluid separates two solid surfaces
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Decollement
DéCOLLEMENT (/dɛ.kɒll.mɔːn/ ; from the French décoller, 'to detach from') is a gliding plane between two rock masses, also known as a basal detachment fault. Décollements are a deformational structure, resulting in independent styles of deformation in the rocks above and below the fault. They are associated with both compressional settings (involving folding and overthrusting ) and extensional settings. CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Formation * 3 Compressional setting * 3.1 Effect of friction * 3.2 Types of folding * 4 Extensional setting * 5 Examples * 5.1 Jura Décollement
Décollement
* 5.2 Appalachian-Ouachita Décollement
Décollement
* 6 References ORIGINThe term was first used by geologists studying the structure of the Swiss Jura Mountains
Jura Mountains
, coined in 1907 by A
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GPS
The GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS), originally NAVSTAR GPS, is a space-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States
United States
Air Force. It is a global navigation satellite system that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver anywhere on or near the Earth
Earth
where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS
GPS
satellites. The GPS
GPS
system does not require the user to transmit any data, and it operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS
GPS
positioning information. The GPS
GPS
system provides critical positioning capabilities to military, civil, and commercial users around the world
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Kazerun
KAZEROON (Persian : كازرون‎‎, also Romanized as KāZERūN, KāZEROūN, and KAZEROON; also known as KASRUN) is a city in and the capital of Kazeroon County , Fars Province
Fars Province
, Iran
Iran
. At the 2017 census, its population was 143,869 in 68,810 families. Its agricultural products include date palms , citrus orchards, wheat , tobacco , rice , cotton , and vines . The nearby ruins of the ancient city of Bishapur
Bishapur
12 mi (19 km) N., include bas-relief depictions from the Sasanid era (ca. 224–651). A statue of Shapur I
Shapur I
(AD 241–272) can be found in a large cave at the site. The ruins of the Qaleh-ye Gabri (Castle of the Gabrs , or Zoroastrians
Zoroastrians
) are located on a mound SE of Kazeroon
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Strike-slip Fault
In geology , a FAULT is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock , across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement. Large faults within the Earth's crust result from the action of plate tectonic forces, with the largest forming the boundaries between the plates, such as subduction zones or transform faults . Energy release associated with rapid movement on active faults is the cause of most earthquakes . A fault plane is the plane that represents the fracture surface of a fault. A fault trace or fault line is the intersection of a fault plane with the ground surface. A fault trace is also the line commonly plotted on geologic maps to represent a fault. Since faults do not usually consist of a single, clean fracture, geologists use the term FAULT ZONE when referring to the zone of complex deformation associated with the fault plane. The two sides of a non-vertical fault are known as the hanging wall and footwall
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Ductile
In materials science , DUCTILITY is a solid material's ability to deform under tensile stress; this is often characterized by the material's ability to be stretched into a wire. MALLEABILITY, a similar property, is a material's ability to deform under compressive stress; this is often characterized by the material's ability to form a thin sheet by hammering or rolling. Both of these mechanical properties are aspects of plasticity , the extent to which a solid material can be plastically deformed without fracture . Also, these material properties are dependent on temperature and pressure (investigated by Percy Williams Bridgman
Percy Williams Bridgman
as part of his Nobel Prize-winning work on high pressures). Ductility
Ductility
and malleability are not always coextensive – for instance, while gold has high ductility and malleability, lead has low ductility but high malleability
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Dolomite
DOLOMITE ( /ˈdɒləmaɪt/ ) is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate , ideally CaMg(CO3)2. The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite. An alternative name sometimes used for the dolomitic rock type is dolostone . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Properties * 3 Formation * 4 Uses * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORYMost probably the mineral dolomite was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1768. In 1791, it was described as a rock by the French naturalist and geologist Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu (1750–1801), first in buildings of the old city of Rome, and later as samples collected in the mountains now known as the Dolomite Alps of northern Italy. Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure first named the mineral (after Dolomieu) in March 1792. PROPERTIESThe mineral dolomite crystallizes in the trigonal-rhombohedral system
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Calcium
CALCIUM is a chemical element with symbol CA and atomic number 20. An alkaline earth metal , calcium is a reactive pale yellow metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed to air. Its physical and chemical properties are most similar to its heavier homologues strontium and barium . It is the fifth most abundant element in Earth's crust and the third most abundant metal, after iron and aluminium . The most common calcium compound on Earth is calcium carbonate , found in limestone and the fossilised remnants of early sea life; gypsum , anhydrite , fluorite , and apatite are also sources of calcium. The name derives from Latin calx "lime", which was obtained from heating limestone. Its compounds were known to the ancients, though their chemistry was unknown until the seventeenth century. It was isolated by Humphry Davy
Humphry Davy
in 1808 via electrolysis of its oxide, who named the element
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Paleozoic
The PALEOZOIC (or PALAEOZOIC) ERA ( /ˌpeɪliəˈzoʊɪk, ˌpæ-/ ; from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life" ) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. It is the longest of the Phanerozoic eras, lasting from 541 to 251.902 million years ago , and is subdivided into six geologic periods (from oldest to youngest): the Cambrian
Cambrian
, Ordovician
Ordovician
, Silurian
Silurian
, Devonian
Devonian
, Carboniferous
Carboniferous
, and Permian
Permian
. The Paleozoic
Paleozoic
comes after the Neoproterozoic Era of the Proterozoic
Proterozoic
Eon and is followed by the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era
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Mesozoic
The MESOZOIC ERA ( /ˌmɛsəˈzoʊɪk, ˌmiː-, -soʊ-/ or /ˌmɛzəˈzoʊɪk, ˌmiː-, -soʊ-/ ) is an interval of geological time from about 252 to 66 million years ago. It is also called the AGE OF REPTILES, a phrase introduced by the 19th century paleontologist Gideon Mantell who viewed it as dominated by diapsids such as Iguanodon , Megalosaurus , Plesiosaurus and Pterodactylus . This Era is also called from a paleobotanist view the AGE OF CONIFERS. Mesozoic
Mesozoic
means "middle life", deriving from the Greek prefix meso-/μεσο- for "between" and zōon/ζῷον meaning "animal " or "living being". It is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon , preceded by the Paleozoic ("ancient life") and succeeded by the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
("new life")
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Triassic
The TRIASSIC ( /traɪˈæsɪk/ ) is a geologic period and system which spans 50.9 million years from the end of the Permian
Permian
Period 251.902 million years ago (Mya ), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period 201.3 Mya . The Triassic
Triassic
is the first period of the Mesozoic Era . Both the start and end of the period are marked by major extinction events . The Triassic
Triassic
began in the wake of the Permian– Triassic
Triassic
extinction event , which left the earth's biosphere impoverished; it would take well into the middle of this period for life to recover its former diversity. Therapsids and archosaurs were the chief terrestrial vertebrates during this time. A specialized subgroup of archosaurs, called dinosaurs , first appeared in the Late Triassic but did not become dominant until the succeeding Jurassic
Jurassic
Period
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