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Zagros Mountains
The Zagros Mountains
Zagros Mountains
(Persian: کوه‌های زاگرس‬‎; Kurdish: چیاکانی زاگرۆس‬‎) form the largest mountain range in Iran, Iraq
Iraq
and southeastern Turkey. This mountain range has a total length of 1,500 km (930 mi). The Zagros mountain range begins in northwestern Iran
Iran
and roughly corresponds to Iran's western border. It spans the whole length of the western and southwestern Iranian plateau, ending at the Strait of Hormuz
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DeNA
DeNA
DeNA
Co., Ltd. (Japanese: 株式会社ディー・エヌ・エー, Hepburn: Kabushikigaisha Dī-Enu-Ē, pronounced "DNA", stylized as :DeNA) is a provider of mobile portal and e-commerce websites based in Japan. It owns the Mobage
Mobage
platform,[2] which is one of the most popular cell phone platforms in Japan
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Calcium
Calcium
Calcium
is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20. An alkaline earth metal, calcium is a reactive pale yellow metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed to air. Its physical and chemical properties are most similar to its heavier homologues strontium and barium. It is the fifth most abundant element in Earth's crust and the third most abundant metal, after iron and aluminium. The most common calcium compound on Earth is calcium carbonate, found in limestone and the fossilised remnants of early sea life; gypsum, anhydrite, fluorite, and apatite are also sources of calcium. The name derives from Latin calx "lime", which was obtained from heating limestone. Its compounds were known to the ancients, though their chemistry was unknown until the seventeenth century. It was isolated by Humphry Davy
Humphry Davy
in 1808 via electrolysis of its oxide, who named the element
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Strike-slip Fault
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement. Large faults within the Earth's crust result from the action of plate tectonic forces, with the largest forming the boundaries between the plates, such as subduction zones or transform faults. Energy release associated with rapid movement on active faults is the cause of most earthquakes. A fault plane is the plane that represents the fracture surface of a fault. A fault trace or fault line is a place where the fault can be seen or mapped on the surface
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Ductile
Ductility
Ductility
is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test. According to Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design--10th Ed. [1] significant denotes about 5.0 percent elongation (Section 5.3, p. 233). See also Eq. 2-12, p. 50 for definitions of percent elongation and percent area reduction. Ductility
Ductility
is often characterized by the material's ability to be stretched into a wire. From examination of data in Tables A20, A21, A22, A23, and A24 in Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design--10th Edition [1] for both ductile and brittle materials, it is possible to postulate a broader quantifiable definition of ductility that does not rely on percent elongation alone
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Decollement
Décollement (/dɛ.kɒll.mɔːn/; from the French décoller, 'to detach from') is a gliding plane between two rock masses, also known as a basal detachment fault. Décollements are a deformational structure, resulting in independent styles of deformation in the rocks above and below the fault. They are associated with both compressional settings (involving folding and overthrusting[3]) and extensional settings.Contents1 Origin 2 Formation 3 Compressional setting3.1 Effect of friction 3.2 Types of folding4 Extensional setting 5 Examples5.1 Jura Décollement 5.2 Appalachian-Ouachita Décollement6 ReferencesOrigin[edit] The term was first used by geologists studying the structure of the Swiss Jura Mountains,[4] coined in 1907 by A. Buxtorf, who released a paper that theorized that the Jura is the frontal part of a décollement at the base of a nappe, rooted in the faraway Swiss Alps.[5][6] Marcel Alexandre Bertrand published a paper in 1884 that dealt with Alpine nappism
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Friction
Friction
Friction
is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.[2] There are several types of friction:Dry friction is a force that opposes the relative lateral motion of two solid surfaces in contact. Dry friction is subdivided into static friction ("stiction") between non-moving surfaces, and kinetic friction between moving surfaces
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Sedimentary Rock
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water. Sedimentation
Sedimentation
is the collective name for processes that cause mineral or organic particles (detritus) to settle in place. The particles that form a sedimentary rock by accumulating are called sediment. Before being deposited, the sediment was formed by weathering and erosion from the source area, and then transported to the place of deposition by water, wind, ice, mass movement or glaciers, which are called agents of denudation
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Mudstone
Mudstone, a type of mudrock, is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. Grain size is up to 0.063 millimetres (0.0025 in)[1] with individual grains too small to be distinguished without a microscope. With increased pressure over time, the platey clay minerals may become aligned, with the appearance of fissility or parallel layering. This finely bedded material that splits readily into thin layers is called shale, as distinct from mudstone. The lack of fissility or layering in mudstone may be due to either original texture or the disruption of layering by burrowing organisms in the sediment prior to lithification
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Siltstone
Siltstone
Siltstone
is a sedimentary rock which has a grain size in the silt range, finer than sandstone and coarser than claystones. Description[edit] Siltstone
Siltstone
is a clastic sedimentary rock. As its name implies, it is primarily composed (greater than 2/3) of silt sized particles, defined as grains 2–62 µm or 4 to 8 on the Krumbein phi (φ) scale. Siltstones differ significantly from sandstones due to their smaller pores and higher propensity for containing a significant clay fraction. Although often mistaken as a shale, siltstone lacks the fissility and laminations which are typical of shale. Siltstones may contain concretions. Unless the siltstone is fairly shaly, stratification is likely to be obscure and it tends to weather at oblique angles unrelated to bedding
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Limestone
Limestone
Limestone
is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years
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Dolomite
Dolomite
Dolomite
( /ˈdɒləmaɪt/) is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally CaMg(CO3)2. The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite. An alternative name sometimes used for the dolomitic rock type is dolostone.Contents1 History 2 Properties 3 Formation 4 Uses 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] Most probably the mineral dolomite was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1768.[6] In 1791, it was described as a rock by the French naturalist and geologist Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu
Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu
(1750–1801), first in buildings of the old city of Rome, and later as samples collected in the mountains now known as the Dolomite Alps
Dolomite Alps
of northern Italy
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Magnesium
Magnesium
Magnesium
is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12. It is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column (group 2, or alkaline earth metals) of the periodic table: all group 2 elements have the same electron configuration in the outer electron shell and a similar crystal structure. Magnesium
Magnesium
is the ninth most abundant element in the universe.[4][5] It is produced in large, aging stars from the sequential addition of three helium nuclei to a carbon nucleus. When such stars explode as supernovas, much of the magnesium is expelled into the interstellar medium where it may recycle into new star systems
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Summit
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a local maximum in elevation. The topographic terms "acme", "apex", "peak", and "zenith" are synonymous.Contents1 Definition1.1 Western United States 1.2 Summit
Summit
climbing equipment2 See also 3 References 4 External linksDefinition[edit] The term "top" is generally used only for a mountain peak that is located some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are often considered subsummits (or subpeaks) of the higher peak, and are considered as part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top
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Erosion
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that removes soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it away to another location[1] (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement). This natural process is caused by the dynamic activity of erosive agents, that is, water, ice (glaciers), snow, air (wind), plants, animals, and humans. In accordance with these agents, erosion is sometimes divided into water erosion, glacial erosion, snow erosion, wind (aeolic) erosion, zoogenic erosion, and anthropogenic erosion[2].The particulate breakdown of rock or soil into clastic sediment is referred to as physical or mechanical erosion; this contrasts with chemical erosion, where soil or rock material is removed from an area by its dissolving into a solvent (typically water), followed by the flow away of that solution
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Sedimentary Depositional Environment
In geology, depositional environment or sedimentary environment describes the combination of physical, chemical and biological processes associated with the deposition of a particular type of sediment and, therefore, the rock types that will be formed after lithification, if the sediment is preserved in the rock record
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