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Yu Guangyuan
Yu Guangyuan (Chinese: 于光遠; pinyin: Yǘ Guāngyuǎn; 5 July 1915 – 23 September 2013) was a prominent Chinese economist, philosopher and government official. Yu is recognized as one of the first scholars to put forward the socialist market-oriented economic system in China and to propose the theory of "the Primary Stage of Socialism"[1] and served as a close adviser and speech-writer to the Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping. Yu was a senior member of the Political Research Office of the State Council, a deputy president of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and a deputy director of the Science and Technology Commission of the State Council.Contents1 Early life 2 WWI and Cultural Revolution 3 Reform era 4 Academics 5 Miscellany 6 Major publications 7 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Yu Guangyuan was born on 5 July 1915,in Shanghai,three years after the founding of the Republic of China
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Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai
(Chinese: 上海; Wu Chinese:  Wu pronunciation; Mandarin: [ʂâŋ.xài] ( listen)) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China
China
and the most populous city in the world, with a population of more than 24 million as of 2017[update].[13][14] It is a global financial centre[15] and transport hub, with the world's busiest container port.[16] Located in the Yangtze
Yangtze
River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze
Yangtze
in the middle portion of the East China
China
coast
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Li Chang
Li Chang
Li Chang
(12 December 1914 – 3 September 2010) was an official of the People's Republic of China. He served as the Secretary of Central Commission for Discipline Inspection of the CPC from 1982 to 1985, then as member of the Central Advisory Commission
Central Advisory Commission
of the CPC Central Committee. Li joined the Chinese Communist Party in the 1930s, and later rose in prominence as a reformist.[7] He was one of the key comrades of Deng Xiaoping.[8] References[edit]^ a b "Li Chang, former Secretary of Central Commission for Discipline Inspection passes away". People's Daily (in Chinese). 8 September 2010. Retrieved 28 October 2013.  ^ "Obituary from Tsinghua University". Archived from the original on 2013-11-05.  ^ CRF (2009). ""Prisoner of the State" Roundtable". HRIC. “New China” at 60
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Theoretical Physics
Theoretical physics
Theoretical physics
is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena. This is in contrast to experimental physics, which uses experimental tools to probe these phenomena. The advancement of science generally depends on the interplay between experimental studies and theory
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Zhou Peiyuan
Zhou Peiyuan
Zhou Peiyuan
(Chinese: 周培源; August 28, 1902 – November 24, 1993) was a renowned theoretical physicist of China. He was a former president of Peking University, and an academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS).[1] Born in Yixing, Jiangsu Province, Zhou graduated from Tsinghua University in 1924. Then he went to the United States and obtained a bachelor's degree from University of Chicago
University of Chicago
in Spring of 1926, and a master's degree at the end of the same year
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Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
(14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist[5] who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).[4][6]:274 His work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science.[7][8] He is best known by the general public for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2 (which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation").[9] He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
"for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect",[10] a pivotal step in the evolution of quantum theory. Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field
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Institute For Advanced Study
The Institute for Advanced Study
Institute for Advanced Study
(IAS) in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States, is an independent, postdoctoral research center for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry founded in 1930 by American educator Abraham Flexner, together with philanthropists Louis Bamberger and Caroline Bamberger Fuld. The IAS is perhaps best known as the academic home of Albert Einstein, Hermann Weyl, John von Neumann
John von Neumann
and Kurt Gödel, after their immigration to the United States. Although it is close to and collaborates with Princeton University, Rutgers University, and other nearby institutions, it is independent and does not charge tuition or fees.[2] Flexner's guiding principle in founding the Institute was the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake.[3] There are no degree programs or experimental facilities at the Institute
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Qian Sanqiang
Qian Sanqiang
Qian Sanqiang
(Chinese: 钱三强) (October 16, 1913 – June 28, 1992) was a Chinese nuclear physicist. Due to his central role in the development of China's nuclear industry and nuclear weapons program, he is referred to as China's "father of the atomic bomb."[1][2] Biography[edit]The 1936 graduation class of the physics department at Tsinghua University. He Zehui
He Zehui
(Ho Zah-wei) is at the front, second from right; Qian Sanqiang
Qian Sanqiang
is at the back, far left.A native of Huzhou, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Province, China, Qian was born in Shaoxing, attending Peking University
Peking University
and Tsinghua University. He graduated in 1936 in a class with his future wife. His father is Qian Xuantong. Qian went to France
France
in 1937
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He Zehui
Professor He Zehui
He Zehui
or Ho Zah-wei (Chinese: 何泽慧; March 5, 1914 – June 20, 2011) was a Chinese nuclear physicist who worked to develop and exploit nuclear physics in Germany and China.Contents1 Early life and education 2 Career 3 Awards and honors 4 Personal life 5 ReferencesEarly life and education[edit]The 1936 graduation class of the physics department at Tsinghua University. He Zehui
He Zehui
is at the front, second from right; her future husband Qian Sanqiang
Qian Sanqiang
is at the back, far left. He Zehui
He Zehui
was born in Suzhou
Suzhou
in 1914. She attended Suzhou
Suzhou
No.10 Middle School where she was interested in a variety of subjects and she was on the volleyball team.[2] Her family is famous for producing three renowned women scientists
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December 9th Movement
The December 9th Movement
December 9th Movement
(simplified Chinese: 一二•九运动; traditional Chinese: 一二•九運動) was a mass protest led by students in Beiping
Beiping
(present-day Beijing) on December 9, 1935 to demand that the Chinese government actively resist Japanese aggression.Contents1 Background 2 Preparation 3 Events 4 National response 5 Impact 6 See also 7 ReferencesBackground[edit] After the Japanese Imperial Force occupied Manchuria
Manchuria
following the Mukden Incident
Mukden Incident
in 1931, it attempted to follow up with an invasion into northern China. Between June and July 1935, the Chin-Doihara Agreement was negotiated between Japan and the Chinese Kuomintang (KMT) government as a way for the former to gain control of Chahar Province
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Chinese Communist Party
The Communist Party of China
China
(CPC), often referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China. The Communist Party is the sole governing party of China, permitting only eight other, subordinated parties to co-exist, those making up the United Front. It was founded in 1921, chiefly by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao. The party grew quickly and by 1949 it had driven the nationalist Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT) government from mainland China
China
after the Chinese Civil War, thus leading to the establishment of the People's Republic of China
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Peng Huanwu
Peng Huanwu (Chinese: 彭桓武; October 6, 1915 – February 28, 2007) was a renowned theoretical physicist of China, a member of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Chinese Academy of Sciences
(CAS), and a leader of Chinese nuclear weaponry projects.[1] Life and career[edit] Peng was born in Changchun, Jilin Province, with ancestry from Macheng County, Hubei Province. After graduating from department of physics of Tsinghua University, Peng continued to pursue his postgraduate degree. After the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
in July 1937, he went to teach at Yunnan University. In 1938, Peng was enrolled in foreign study program and went to study at University of Edinburgh
University of Edinburgh
in Scotland, and worked with prominent physicist Max Born
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Qian Weichang
Qian Weichang
Qian Weichang
or Chien Wei-zang (simplified Chinese: 钱伟长; traditional Chinese: 錢偉長; pinyin: Qián Wěicháng; Wade–Giles: Ch'ien Wei-ch'ang; 9 October 1912 – 30 July 2010) was a Chinese physicist and applied mathematician, as well as academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He served as President of Shanghai University. Career[edit] Qian was born in Wuxi County, Jiangsu Province
Jiangsu Province
on October 9, 1912. After graduating from Tsinghua University
Tsinghua University
in 1935, he entered the Graduate School of Tsinghua University
Tsinghua University
and became an intern researcher at the National Central Research Institute under the guidance of Prof. Wu Youxun. He obtained a Ph.D. degree at the University of Toronto under the supervision of Prof. J.L
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Republic Of China
Taiwan
Taiwan
(/ˌtaɪˈwɑːn/ ( listen)), officially the Republic of China
China
(ROC), is a state in East Asia.[15][16][17] Its neighbors include the People's Republic of China
China
(PRC) to the west, Japan
Japan
to the northeast, and the Philippines
Philippines
to the south. It is the most populous state and largest economy that is not a member of the United Nations. The island of Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, was inhabited by aborigines before the 17th century, when Dutch and Spanish colonies opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed by the Qing dynasty, the last dynasty of China. The Qing ceded Taiwan
Taiwan
to Japan
Japan
in 1895 after the Sino-Japanese War
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Yan'an
Yan'an
Yan'an
(Chinese: 延安; Mandarin pronunciation: [jɛ̌n.án]) is a prefecture-level city in the Shanbei region of Shaanxi
Shaanxi
province, China, bordering Shanxi
Shanxi
to the east and Gansu
Gansu
to the west. It administers several counties, including Zhidan (formerly Bao'an), which served as the headquarters of the Chinese Communists before the city of Yan'an
Yan'an
proper took that role. Yan'an
Yan'an
was near the endpoint of the Long March, and became the center of the Chinese Communist
Chinese Communist
revolution from 1936 to 1948
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May 7th Cadre School
The May Seventh Cadre Schools (Chinese: 五七干校)(Traditional Chinese:五七幹校) were Chinese labor camps established during the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
that combined hard agricultural work with the study of Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
his writings in order to "re-educate" cadres and intellectuals in proper socialist thought.[1]Contents1 Further reading1.1 Memoirs 1.2 Fiction 1.3 Propaganda Posters2 ReferencesFurther reading[edit] Memoirs[edit]Yang Jiang:《干校六记》- Six Chapters from My Life "Downunder", tr. Howard Goldblatt (University of Washington Press, 1988).[2][3]Fiction[edit]Cao Wenxuan, Bronze and Sunflower, tr
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