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Yosef Karo
Joseph ben Ephraim Karo, also spelled Yosef Caro, or Qaro (1488 – March 24, 1575, 13 Nisan 5335 A.M.), was author of the last great codification of Jewish law, the Shulchan Aruch, which is still authoritative for all Jews pertaining to their respective communities
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Toledo, Spain
Toledo (Spanish: [toˈleðo]) is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha. Toledo was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986 for its extensive monumental and cultural heritage. Toledo is known as the "Imperial City" for having been the main venue of the court of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and as the "City of the Three Cultures" for the cultural influences of Christians, Muslims and Jews reflected in its history. It was also the capital of the ancient Visigothic kingdom of Hispania, which followed the fall of the Roman Empire, and the location of historic events such as the Visigothic Councils of Toledo
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Chaim Vital
Hayyim ben Joseph Vital (Hebrew: רבי חיים בן יוסף ויטאל‬; Safed, October 23, 1542 (Julian calendar) and October 11, 1542 (Gregorian Calendar) – Damascus, 23 April 1620) was a rabbi in Safed and the foremost disciple of Isaac Luria. He recorded much of his master's teachings
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Yeshiva
A yeshiva (/jəˈʃvə/; Hebrew language">Hebrew: ישיבה‎, lit. 'sitting'; pl. Hebrew language text">ישיבות‎, yeshivot or yeshivos) is a Jewish educational institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts, primarily the Talmud and the Torah. The studying is usually done through daily shiurim (lectures or classes) as well as in study pairs called chavrutas ( Aramaic language">Aramaic for 'friendship' or 'companionship'). Chavrusa-style learning is one of the unique features of the yeshiva. In the United States and Israel, the different levels of yeshiva education have different names
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The Torah (/ˈtɔːrəˌˈtrə/; Hebrew language">Hebrew: Ezra SIL', ' Ezra SIL SR', 'Keter Aram Tsova', 'Taamey Ashkenaz', 'Taamey David CLM', 'Taamey Frank CLM', 'Frenk Ruehl CLM', 'Keter YG', 'Shofar', ' David CLM', 'Hadasim CLM', 'Simple CLM', 'Nachlieli', 'SBL BibLit', 'SBL Hebrew', Cardo, Alef, 'Noto Serif Hebrew', 'Noto Sans Hebrew', ' David Libre', David, 'Times New Roman', Gisha, Arial, FreeSerif, FreeSans;" dir="rtl">תּוֹרָה‬, "instruction, teaching") is the central reference of Judaism. It has a range of meanings
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Zechariah Dhahiri
Zechariah (Yaḥya) al-Ḍāhirī (Hebrew: זכריה אלצ'אהרי‎, pronounced [zekharˈyah al-dhahˈiri], b. circa 1531 – d. 1608), often spelled Zechariah al-Dhahiri (Arabic: زكريا الضاهري‎) (16th century Yemen), was the son of Saʻīd (Saʻadia) al-Ḍāhirī, from Kawkaban, in the District of al-Mahwit, Yemen, a place north-west of Sana’a
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Mishna
The Mishnah or Mishna (/ˈmɪʃnə/; Hebrew: מִשְׁנָה‬, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah שנה‬, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written redaction of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah". It is also the first major work of Rabbinic literature. The Mishnah was redacted by Judah the Prince at the beginning of the third century CE in a time when, according to the Talmud, the persecution of the Jews and the passage of time raised the possibility that the details of the oral traditions of the Pharisees from the Second Temple period (536 BCE – 70 CE) would be forgotten. Most of the Mishnah is written in Mishnaic Hebrew, while some parts are Aramaic. The Mishnah consists of six orders (sedarim, singular seder סדר), each containing 7–12 tractates (masechtot, singular masechet מסכת; lit
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Diaspora
A diaspora is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale. In particular, Diaspora has come to refer to involuntary mass dispersions of a population from its indigenous territories, most notably the expulsion of Jews from Judea and the fleeing of Greeks after the fall of Constantinople
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Yaakov Castro
Yaakov de Castro (Hebrew: יעקב קשטרו‬), alternative spelling: Yaakov Costaro (1525–1610), was a rabbinic scholar, judge and exponent of Jewish law in Cairo, Egypt. A descendant of Jews who fled Portugal during the time of the Portuguese Inquisition, his family eventually came to settle in Egypt. A student of the illustrious Radbaz (Rabbi David ben Solomon ibn Abi Zimra), he is considered the last Chief Rabbi of Egypt to hold sway over the entire Jewish community in Egypt, mostly Musta'arabi Jews, after the abolishment of the office of nagid, and whose halachic rulings were widespread across the land
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Chaim Joseph David Azulai
Haim Yosef David Azulai ben Yitzhak Zerachia (1724 – 1 March 1806) (Hebrew: חיים יוסף דוד אזולאי‬), commonly known as the Hida (the acronym of his name, חיד"א‬), was a Jerusalem born rabbinical scholar, a noted bibliophile, and a pioneer in the publication of Jewish religious writings. Some have speculated that his family name, Azulai, is an acronym based on being a Kohen: אשה זנה וחללה לא יקח‬ (Leviticus,21:7), a biblical restriction on whom a Kohen may marry
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Solomon Molcho
Solomon Molcho (Hebrew: שלמה מולכוShelomo Molkho), or Molko, originally Diogo Pires, (1500 – 13 December 1532) was a Portuguese mystic and pseudomessiah. A "New Christian" who converted to Judaism, Molcho declared himself the Messiah, was convicted of
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Azariah Dei Rossi
Azariah ben Moses dei Rossi (Hebrew: עזריה מן האדומים) was an Italian-Jewish physician and scholar. He was born at Mantua in c. 1511; and died in 1578. He was descended from an old Jewish family which, according to a tradition, was brought by Titus from Jerusalem. He was known among Jews as Azariah min-Ha'adumim (Azariah of the Red Family), a play on his name as well as a possible allusion to the fact that he lived in Catholic Italy, Rome being regarded as a spiritual heir of Esau (Edom, from Hebrew `-d-m, red). Combining an insatiable desire for learning with remarkable mental power, Dei Rossi early in life became exceptionally proficient in Hebrew, Latin, and Italian literature. He studied simultaneously medicine, archeology, history, Greek and Roman antiquities, and Christian ecclesiastical history. When about the age of thirty he married and settled for a time at Ferrara
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Kraków
Kraków (Polish: [ˈkrakuf] (About this sound listen)), also Cracow or Krakow (UK: /ˈkræk/; US: /ˈkrɑː-/), is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River (Polish: Wisła) in the Lesser Poland (Polish: Małopolska) region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, cultural, and artistic life and is one of Poland's most important economic hubs
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Carpentras
1---> French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2---> (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2---> Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Carpentras (French pronunciation: ​[kaʁpɑ̃tʁa]; Provençal Occitan: Carpentràs in classical norm or Carpentras in Mistralian norm) is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. It stands on the banks of the Auzon. As capital of the Comtat Venaissin, it was frequently the residence of the Avignon papacy"> Avignon popes; the Papal States retained possession of the Venaissin until the French Revolution
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