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Yellow River Civilization
Yellow River
Yellow River
civilization or Huang civilization, Hwan‐huou civilization is an ancient Chinese civilization that prospered in a middle and lower basin of the Yellow River. Agriculture
Agriculture
was started in the flood plain of the Yellow River, and before long, through flood control and the irrigation of the Yellow River, cities were developed and political power found reinforcement. One of the "four major civilizations of the ancient world", it is often included in textbooks of East Asian history, but the idea of including only the Huang civilization as one of the four biggest ancient civilizations has become outdated thanks to the discovery of other early cultures, such as the Chang Jiang and Liao civilizations
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Yellow River
The Yellow River
River
or Huang He ( listen) is the third longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze
Yangtze
River
River
and Yenisei River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of 5,464 km (3,395 mi).[1] Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai
Qinghai
province of Western China, it flows through nine provinces, and it empties into the Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea
near the city of Dongying in Shandong
Shandong
province. The Yellow River
River
basin has an east–west extent of about 1,900 kilometers (1,180 mi) and a north–south extent of about 1,100 km (680 mi). Its total drainage area is about 752,546 square kilometers (290,560 sq mi). Its basin was the birthplace of ancient Chinese civilization, and it was the most prosperous region in early Chinese history
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Yangguanzhai
Yangguanzhai (simplified Chinese: 杨官寨; traditional Chinese: 楊官寨) is an archaeological site discovered in 2004 at Gaoling County, Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Province
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List Of Paleolithic Sites In China
The Paleolithic
Paleolithic
or Palaeolithic /ˌpæliːəˈlɪθɪk/ is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.[1] It extends from the earliest known use of stone tools by hominins c. 3.3 million years ago, to the end of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
c. 11,650 cal BP.[2] The Paleolithic
Paleolithic
is followed in Europe by the Mesolithic, although the date of the transition varies geographically by several thousand years. During the Paleolithic, hominins grouped together in small societies such as bands, and subsisted by gathering plants and fishing, hunting or scavenging wild animals.[3] The Paleolithic
Paleolithic
is characterized by the use of knapped stone tools, although at the time humans also used wood and bone tools
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Jiangzhai, Xi'an
Jiangzhai
Jiangzhai
(Chinese: 姜寨; pinyin: Jiāngzhài) is a Banpo
Banpo
phase
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Agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture
is the cultivation and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.[1] Agriculture
Agriculture
was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years; people gathered wild grains at least 105,000 years ago, and began to plant them around 11,500 years ago, before they became domesticated. Pigs, sheep, and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Crops originate from at least 11 regions of the world
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Zhou Dynasty
The Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
or the Zhou Kingdom (/dʒoʊ/;[4] Chinese: 周朝; pinyin: Zhōu cháo [ʈʂóu ʈʂʰǎu]) was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
and preceded the Qin dynasty. The Zhou dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history
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Shang Dynasty
The Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
(/ʃɑːŋ/;[2] Chinese: 商朝; pinyin: Shāng cháo) or Yin dynasty (/jɪn/; 殷代; Yīn dài), according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River
Yellow River
valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty
Xia dynasty
and followed by the Zhou dynasty. The classic account of the Shang comes from texts such as the Book of Documents, Bamboo Annals and Records of the Grand Historian. According to the traditional chronology based on calculations made approximately 2,000 years ago by Liu Xin, the Shang ruled from 1766 to 1122 BC, but according to the chronology based upon the "current text" of Bamboo Annals, they ruled from 1556 to 1046 BC. The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project
Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project
dated them from c
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Bronze
Bronze
Bronze
is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon. These additions produce a range of alloys that may be harder than copper alone, or have other useful properties, such as stiffness, ductility, or machinability. The archeological period where bronze was the hardest metal in widespread use is known as the Bronze
Bronze
Age. The beginning of the Bronze Age in Western Eurasia
Eurasia
and South Asia
Asia
is conventionally dated to the mid-4th millennium BC, and to the early 2nd millennium BC in China;[1] everywhere it gradually spread across regions
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Neolithic
farming, animal husbandry pottery, metallurgy, wheel circular ditches, henges, megaliths Neolithic
Neolithic
religion↓ ChalcolithicThe Neolithic
Neolithic
(/ˌniːəˈlɪθɪk/ ( listen)[1]) was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world[2] and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC. Traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age
Stone Age
or The New Stone Age, the Neolithic
Neolithic
followed the terminal Holocene
Holocene
Epipaleolithic period and commenced with the beginning of farming, which produced the " Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution"
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Erlitou Culture
Coordinates: 34°41′35″N 112°41′20″E / 34.693°N 112.689°E / 34.693; 112.689 The Erlitou culture
Erlitou culture
was an early Bronze Age urban society and archaeological culture that existed in the Yellow River
Yellow River
valley from approximately 1900 to 1500 BC.[1][2] (A 2007 study of radiocarbon dating has proposed a narrower date range of 1750 to 1530 BC.[3]) The culture was named after the site discovered at Erlitou in Yanshi, Henan. The culture was widely spread throughout Henan
Henan
and Shanxi
Shanxi
and later appeared in Shaanxi
Shaanxi
and Hubei
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Niuheliang
Niuheliang
Niuheliang
(Chinese: 牛河梁) is a Neolithic
Neolithic
archaeological site in Liaoning
Liaoning
Province, Northeast China, along the middle and upper reaches of the Laoha River and the Yingjin River (presently on the border of Chaoyang and Jianping County).[1][2] Discovered in 1983, Niuheliang site belongs to the Hongshan culture
Hongshan culture
(4700 - 2900 BC). It includes evidence of religion, such as a temple, an altar and a cairn.[3]Contents1 Description 2 Temple2.1 Interpretation3 Pyramidal structure 4 Footnotes 5 References 6 External linksDescription[edit] Niuheliang
Niuheliang
is a large burial site scattered over hill tops over a 50 square kilometer area. The altitude of Niuheliang
Niuheliang
ranges between 550 meters and 680 meters above sea level.[4] Niuheliang
Niuheliang
dates to 3,500-3,000 BCE
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East Asia
East Asia
Asia
or Northeast Asia
Northeast Asia
is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical[3] or pan-ethno-cultural[4] terms.[5][6] Geographically and geopolitically, the region constitutes Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan.[7][8][9][10][11][3][12][13][14][15] The region was the cradle of various ancient civilizations such as Ancient China, ancient Japan, ancient Korea, and the Mongol Empire.[16][17] East Asia
Asia
was one of the cradles of world civilization, with China, an ancient East Asian civilization being one of the earliest cradles of civilization in human history
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Cradle Of Civilization
The term "cradle of civilization" refers to locations where, according to current archeological data, civilization is understood to have emerged. Current thinking is that there was no single "cradle", but several civilizations that developed independently, with the Fertile Crescent ( Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and Ancient Egypt) understood to be the earliest.[1] Other civilizations arose in Asia
Asia
among cultures situated along large river valleys, such as Indo-Gangetic Plain
Indo-Gangetic Plain
in India[2][3] and the Yellow River
River
in China.[4] The extent to which there was significant influence between the early civilizations of the Near East and those of East Asia
Asia
is disputed
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Irrigation
Irrigation
Irrigation
is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals. Irrigation
Irrigation
helps grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, and revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of less than average rainfall. Irrigation
Irrigation
also has other uses in crop production, including frost protection,[1] suppressing weed growth in grain fields[2] and preventing soil consolidation.[3] In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming. Irrigation
Irrigation
systems are also used for cooling livestock, dust suppression, disposal of sewage, and in mining
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Flood Control
Flood
Flood
control methods are used to reduce or prevent the detrimental effects of flood waters.[1] Flood
Flood
relief methods are used to reduce the effects of flood waters or high water levels.Contents1 Causes of floods1.1 Severe winds over water 1.2 Unusual high tides


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