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Yeast
ASCOMYCOTA p. p. * Saccharomycotina (true yeasts)* Taphrinomycotina p. p. * Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts)BASIDIOMYCOTA p. p. * Agaricomycotina
Agaricomycotina
p. p. * Tremellomycetes * Pucciniomycotina p. p. * Microbotryomycetes YEASTS are eukaryotic , single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom . The first yeast originated hundreds of millions of years ago, and 1,500 species are currently identified. They are estimated to constitute 1% of all described fungal species. Yeasts are unicellular organisms which evolved from multicellular ancestors, with some species having the ability to develop multicellular characteristics by forming strings of connected budding cells known as pseudohyphae or false hyphae
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Mitosis
In cell biology , MITOSIS is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei. In general, mitosis (division of the nucleus) is preceded by the S stage of interphase (during which the DNA
DNA
is replicated) and is often accompanied or followed by cytokinesis , which divides the cytoplasm , organelles and cell membrane into two new cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components. Mitosis
Mitosis
and cytokinesis together define the MITOTIC (M) PHASE of an animal cell cycle—the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells genetically identical to each other. The process of mitosis is divided into stages corresponding to the completion of one set of activities and the start of the next. These stages are prophase , prometaphase , metaphase , anaphase , and telophase
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Budding
BUDDING is a form of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site. The new organism remains attached as it grows, separating from the parent organism only when it is mature, leaving behind scar tissue. Since the reproduction is asexual, the newly created organism is a clone and is genetically identical to the parent organism. Organisms such as hydra use regenerative cells for reproduction in the process of budding. In hydra, a bud develops as an outgrowth due to repeated cell division at one specific site. These buds develop into tiny individuals and, when fully mature, detach from the parent body and become new independent individuals. Internal budding or endodyogeny is a process of asexual reproduction, favoured by parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii
Toxoplasma gondii

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Phylum
In biology, a PHYLUM (/ˈfaɪləm/ ; plural : PHYLA) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class . Traditionally, in botany the term division has been used instead of phylum, although the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants accepts the terms as equivalent. Depending on definitions, the animal kingdom Animalia or Metazoa contains approximately 33 phyla, the plant kingdom Plantae
Plantae
contains about 14, and the fungus kingdom Fungi
Fungi
contains about 8 phyla. Current research in phylogenetics is uncovering the relationships between phyla, which are contained in larger clades , like Ecdysozoa and Embryophyta
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Asexual Reproduction
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes , and almost never changes the number of chromosomes . Asexual reproduction is the primary form of reproduction for single-celled organisms such as the Archaea and bacteria . Many plants and fungi reproduce asexually as well. While all prokaryotes reproduce asexually (without the formation and fusion of gametes), mechanisms for lateral gene transfer such as conjugation , transformation and transduction are sometimes likened to sexual reproduction or at least with sex , in the sense of genetic recombination in meiosis . A complete lack of sexual reproduction is relatively rare among multicellular organisms, particularly animals. It is not entirely understood why the ability to reproduce sexually is so common among them
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Diameter
In geometry , a DIAMETER of a circle is any straight line segment that passes through the center of the circle and whose endpoints lie on the circle. It can also be defined as the longest chord of the circle. Both definitions are also valid for the diameter of a sphere . In more modern usage, the length of a diameter is also called the diameter. In this sense one speaks of the diameter rather than a diameter (which refers to the line itself), because all diameters of a circle or sphere have the same length, this being twice the radius R. d = 2 r r = d 2 . {displaystyle d=2rquad Rightarrow quad r={frac {d}{2}}.} For a convex shape in the plane, the diameter is defined to be the largest distance that can be formed between two opposite parallel lines tangent to its boundary, and the width is often defined to be the smallest such distance. Both quantities can be calculated efficiently using rotating calipers
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Order (biology)
In biological classification , the ORDER (Latin : ordo) is * a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes . Other well-known ranks are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , class , family , genus , and species , with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, SUPERORDER, may be added directly above order, while SUBORDER would be a lower rank. * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes. What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist , as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Synonym
A SYNONYM is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language. Words that are synonyms are said to be SYNONYMOUS, and the state of being a synonym is called SYNONYMY. For example, the words begin, start, commence, and initiate are all synonyms of one another. Words are typically synonymous in one particular sense : for example, long and extended in the context long time or extended time are synonymous, but long cannot be used in the phrase extended family. Synonyms with the exact same meaning share a seme or denotational sememe , whereas those with inexactly similar meanings share a broader denotational or connotational sememe and thus overlap within a semantic field . The former are sometimes called cognitive synonyms and the latter, near-synonyms
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Phylogenetics
In biology , PHYLOGENETICS /ˌfaɪloʊdʒəˈnɛtɪks, -lə-/ (Greek : φυλή, φῦλον - phylé, phylon = tribe, clan, race + γενετικός - genetikós = origin, source, birth) is the study of the evolutionary history and relationships among individuals or groups of organisms (e.g. species , or populations ). These relationships are discovered through phylogenetic inference methods that evaluate observed heritable traits, such as DNA
DNA
sequences or morphology under a model of evolution of these traits. The result of these analyses is a phylogeny (also known as a phylogenetic tree ) – a diagrammatic hypothesis about the history of the evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms. The tips of a phylogenetic tree can be living organisms or fossils, and represent the "end", or the present, in an evolutionary lineage. Phylogenetic analyses have become central to understanding biodiversity, evolution, ecology, and genomes
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Baking
BAKING is a method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat, normally in an oven , but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones. The most common baked item is bread but many other types of foods are baked. Heat is gradually transferred "from the surface of cakes, cookies, and breads to their centre. As heat travels through it transforms batters and doughs into baked goods with a firm dry crust and a softer centre". Baking
Baking
can be combined with grilling to produce a hybrid barbecue variant by using both methods simultaneously, or one after the other. Baking
Baking
is related to barbecuing because the concept of the masonry oven is similar to that of a smoke pit . Because of historical social and familial roles, baking has traditionally been performed at home by women for domestic consumption and by men in bakeries and restaurants for local consumption
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Cell Biology
CELL BIOLOGY (formerly called CYTOLOGY, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the different structures and functions of the cell and focuses mainly on the idea of the cell as the basic unit of life. Cell biology explains the structure, organization of the organelles they contain, their physiological properties, metabolic processes, Signaling pathways , life cycle , and interactions with their environment. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells . Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences ; it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. Research in cell biology is closely related to genetics , biochemistry , molecular biology , immunology , and developmental biology
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Opportunistic Pathogen
An OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION is an infection caused by pathogens (bacteria , viruses , fungi , or protozoa ) that take advantage of an opportunity not normally available, such as a host with a weakened immune system , an altered microbiota (such as a disrupted gut flora ), or breached integumentary barriers. Many of these pathogens do not cause disease in a healthy host that has a normal immune system. However, a compromised immune system, a penetrating injury , or a lack of competition from normal commensals presents an opportunity for the pathogen to infect
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Carbohydrate
A CARBOHYDRATE is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m may be different from n). This formula holds true for monosaccharides . Some exceptions exist; for example, deoxyribose , a sugar component of DNA
DNA
, has the empirical formula C5H10O4. The carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon; structurally it is more accurate to view them as aldoses and ketones . The term is most common in biochemistry , where it is a synonym of 'saccharide', a group that includes sugars , starch , and cellulose . The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides , oligosaccharides , and polysaccharides . Monosaccharides and disaccharides, the smallest (lower molecular weight ) carbohydrates, are commonly referred to as sugars
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Biofuel
A BIOFUEL is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion , rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels , such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter. Biofuels
Biofuels
can be derived directly from plants, or indirectly from agricultural, commercial, domestic, and/or industrial wastes. Renewable biofuels generally involve contemporary carbon fixation , such as those that occur in plants or microalgae through the process of photosynthesis . Other renewable biofuels are made through the use or conversion of biomass (referring to recently living organisms, most often referring to plants or plant-derived materials). This biomass can be converted to convenient energy-containing substances in three different ways: thermal conversion, chemical conversion, and biochemical conversion
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Microbial Fuel Cell
A MICROBIAL FUEL CELL (MFC), or BIOLOGICAL FUEL CELL, is a bio-electrochemical system that drives an electric current by using bacteria and mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature . MFCs can be grouped into two general categories: mediated and unmediated. The first MFCs, demonstrated in the early 20th century, used a mediator: a chemical that transfers electrons from the bacteria in the cell to the anode. Unmediated MFCs emerged in the 1970s; in this type of MFC the bacteria typically have electrochemically active redox proteins such as cytochromes on their outer membrane that can transfer electrons directly to the anode. In the 21st century MFCs started to find a commercial use in wastewater treatment
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