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Xuzhou
Xuzhou, known as Pengcheng in ancient times, is a major city in Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province, China
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Chinese Postal Romanization
Postal romanization[1] was a system of transliterating Chinese place names developed by the Imperial Post Office in the early 1900s. The system was in common use until the 1980s. For major cities and other places that already had widely accepted European names, traditional spellings were retained.[2] With regard to other place names, the post office revised policy several times. Spellings given could reflect the local pronunciation, Nanjing pronunciation, or Beijing pronunciation
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Nationalities Of China
Multiple ethnic groups populate China, where "China" is taken to mean areas controlled by either of the two states using "China" in their formal names, the People's Republic of China
China
(China) and the Republic of China
China
(Taiwan). The Chinese people refers to the Han 漢 people which is often misunderstood as Han Chinese, are the largest ethnic group, where (as of 2010) some 91.51%[1] of the population was classified as Han (~1.2 billion). Han is the name the Chinese have used for themselves since the Han Dynasty BC 202, whereas the name "Chinese" (used in the West) is of uncertain origin, but possibly derives ultimately from Sanskrit Cina-s "the Chinese," perhaps from the Qin dynasty
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Wu Ding
Wu Ding (Chinese: 武丁) was a king of the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
in ancient China, whose reign lasted from approximately 1250–1192 BC.[1] According to the traditional chronology, his reign was 1324–1266 BC.[2] Wu Ding is the earliest figure in the histories of the Chinese dynasties who has been confirmed by contemporary records. The annals of the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
compiled by later historians were long thought to be little more than legends until oracle script inscriptions on bones dating from his reign were unearthed at the ruins of his capital Yin (near modern Anyang) in 1899.[3] History[edit] In the sixth year of his father's reign, he was ordered to live at He (河) and study under Gan Pan (甘盤)
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Tudi
Tudi (Persian: تودي‎, also Romanized as Tūdī and Ţūdī)[1] is a village in Sangan Rural District, in the Central District of Khash County, Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 70, in 20 families.[2] References[edit]^ Tudi can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3757127" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database". ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". Islamic Republic of Iran
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Dawenkou Culture
The Dawenkou culture is a name given by archaeologists to a group of Neolithic communities who lived primarily in Shandong, but also appeared in Anhui, Henan and Jiangsu, China. The culture existed from 4100 to 2600 BC, co-existing with the Yangshao culture. Turquoise, jade and ivory artefacts are commonly found at Dawenkou sites. The earliest examples of alligator drums appear at Dawenkou sites. Neolithic signs, perhaps related to subsequent scripts, such as those of the Shang Dynasty, have been found on Dawenkou pottery.[1] Archaeologists commonly divide the culture into three phases: the early phase (4100–3500 BC), the middle phase (3500–3000 BC) and the late phase (3000–2600 BC). Based on the evidence from grave goods, the early phase was highly egalitarian. The phase is typified by the presence of individually designed, long-stemmed cups (鬹 guī). Graves built with earthen ledges became increasingly common during the latter parts of the early phase
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Romanization Of Chinese
The Romanization
Romanization
of Chinese is the use of the Latin alphabet to write Chinese. Chinese uses a logographic script, and its characters do not represent phonemes directly. There have been many systems using Roman characters to represent Chinese throughout history. Linguist Daniel Kane recalls, "It used to be said that sinologists had to be like musicians, who might compose in one key and readily transcribe into other keys."[1] However, Hanyu Pinyin
Pinyin
has become the international standard since 1982. Other well-known systems include Wade-Giles and Yale Romanization. There are many uses for Chinese Romanization. Most broadly, it is used to provide a useful way for foreigners who are not skilled at recognizing Chinese script a means to read and recognize Chinese names. Apart from this general role, it serves as a useful tool for foreign learners of Chinese by indicating the pronunciation of unfamiliar characters
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Relief
Relief
Relief
is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The term relief is from the Latin verb relevo, to raise. To create a sculpture in relief is to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane.[1] What is actually performed when a relief is cut in from a flat surface of stone (relief sculpture) or wood (relief carving) is a lowering of the field, leaving the unsculpted parts seemingly raised. The technique involves considerable chiselling away of the background, which is a time-consuming exercise. On the other hand, a relief saves forming the rear of a subject, and is less fragile and more securely fixed than a sculpture in the round, especially one of a standing figure where the ankles are a potential weak point, especially in stone
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Zheng (state)
Zheng (Chinese: 鄭; Old Chinese: *[d]reng-s) was a vassal state in China during the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
(1046–221 BCE) located in the centre of ancient China in modern-day Henan Province
Henan Province
on the North China Plain about 75 miles (121 km) east of the royal capital at Luoyang. It was the most powerful of the vassal states at the beginning of the Eastern Zhou (771–701 BCE), and was the first state to clearly establish a code of law in its late period of 543 BCE
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Wade–Giles
Wade–Giles (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/), sometimes abbreviated Wade,[citation needed] is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade, during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect-based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization (still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hànyǔ Pīnyīn system approved in 1958. Outside mainland China, it has mostly been replaced by Pīnyīn, even though Taiwan implements a multitude of Romanization systems in daily life
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Qi (state)
Qi was a state of the Zhou dynasty-era in ancient China, variously reckoned as a march, duchy, and independent kingdom. Its capital was Yingqiu, located within present-day Zibo
Zibo
in Shandong. Qi was founded shortly after the Zhou overthrow of Shang in the 11th century BC. Its first marquis was Jiang Ziya, minister of King Wen and a legendary figure in Chinese culture. His family ruled Qi for several centuries before it was replaced by the Tian family in 386 BC.[1] In 221 BC, Qi was the final major state annexed by Qin during its unification of China.Contents1 History1.1 Foundation 1.2 Spring and Autumn period 1.3 Warring States period2 Culture of Qi 3 Qi architecture 4 Qi in astronomy 5 Rulers5.1 House of Jiang 5.2 House of Tian6 Famous people 7 References 8 Further readingHistory[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification
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Wei (state)
Wei (/weɪ/;[1] Chinese: 魏; pinyin: Wèi; Old Chinese: *N-qʰuj-s) was an ancient Chinese state during the Warring States period. Its territory lay between the states of Qin and Qi and included parts of modern-day Henan, Hebei, Shanxi, and Shandong. After its capital was moved from Anyi to Daliang (present-day Kaifeng) during the reign of King Hui, Wei was also called Liang (Chinese: 梁; pinyin: Liáng).Contents1 History1.1 Foundation 1.2 Spring and Autumn period 1.3 Warring States Period 1.4 Defeat2 Rulers 3 Family tree of Wei rulers3.1 Famous people4 Legacy4.1 Chinese legend 4.2 Chinese astronomy5 See also 6 ReferencesHistory[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Jingzhou
Jingzhou
Jingzhou
(Chinese: 荆州) is a prefecture-level city in southern Hubei, China, located on the banks of the Yangtze
Yangtze
River
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Hubei
Hubei
Hubei
(Chinese: 湖北; pinyin: Húběi) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the Central China
Central China
region. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Dongting Lake.[4] The provincial capital is Wuhan, a major transportation thoroughfare and the political, cultural, and economic hub of Central China. Hubei
Hubei
is officially abbreviated to "鄂" (È), an ancient name associated with the eastern part of the province since the Qin dynasty, while a popular name for Hubei
Hubei
is "楚" (Chǔ), after the powerful State of Chu
State of Chu
that existed here during the Eastern Zhou dynasty
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Licence Plates Of The People's Republic Of China
A republic (Latin: res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch.[1][2][3] In American English, the definition of a republic refers specifically to a form of government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body[2] and exercise power according to the rule of law under a constitution, including separation of powers with an elected head of state, referred to as a constitutional republic[4][5][6][7] or representative democracy. [8] As of 2017[update], 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names – not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor is the word "republic" used in the names of all nations with elected governments
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Han Chinese
The Han Chinese, Han people[27][28][29] or simply Han[28][29][30] (/hɑːn/;[31] Mandarin: [xân]; Han characters: 漢人 (Mandarin pinyin: Hànrén; literally "Han people"[32]) or 漢族 (pinyin: Hànzú; literally "Han ethnicity"[33] or "Han ethnic group"[34])) are an East Asian ethnic group and nation.[35] They constitute the world's largest ethnic group, making up about 18% of the global population. The estimated 1.3 billion Han Chinese
Han Chinese
are mostly concentrated in Mainland China, where they make up about 92% of the total population.[2] The
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