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Xishuangbanna
Xishuangbanna, Sibsongbanna, or Sipsong Panna, shortened to Banna (full name: Tham: ᩈᩥ᩠ᨷᩈ᩠ᩋᨦᨻᩢ᩠ᨶᨶᩣ; New Tai Lü script: ᦈᦹᧈᦈᦹᧈᦵᦋᦲᧁᧈᦘᦱᦉᦱᦺᦑ᧑᧒ᦗᧃᦓᦱ; Chinese: 西双版纳傣族自治州; Thai: สิบสองปันนา; Lao: ສິບສອງພັນນາ; Shan: သိပ်းသွင်ပၼ်းၼႃး; Burmese: စစ်ဆောင်ပန္နား) is a Tai Lü autonomous prefecture in the extreme south of Yunnan, China. The prefectural seat is Jinghong, the largest settlement in the area and one that straddles the Mekong, called the "Lancang River" in Chinese.[3] This region of China
China
is noted for its distinct culture, unlike that of the Han Chinese
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Burmese Language
The Burmese language
Burmese language
(Burmese: မြန်မာဘာသာ, MLCTS: mranmabhasa, IPA: [mjəmà bàðà]) is the official language of Myanmar. Although the Constitution of Myanmar
Myanmar
officially recognizes the English name of the language as the Myanmar
Myanmar
language,[4] most English speakers continue to refer to the language as Burmese. In 2007, it was spoken as a first language by 34 million, primarily the Bamar (Burman) people and related ethnic groups, and as a second language by 10 million, particularly ethnic minorities in Myanmar
Myanmar
and neighboring countries. Burmese is a tonal, pitch-register, and syllable-timed language,[5] largely monosyllabic and analytic, with a subject–object–verb word order. It is a member of the Lolo-Burmese grouping of the Sino-Tibetan language family
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Lao People
The Lao are a Tai ethnic group native to Southeast Asia, who speak the eponymous language of the Tai–Kadai
Tai–Kadai
group. Originating from present-day southern China, they are the majority ethnic group of Laos, at 53.2%. The majority of Lao people
Lao people
adhere to Theravada Buddhism
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Lao Language
Lao, sometimes referred to as Laotian (ລາວ 'Lao' or ພາສາລາວ 'Lao language') is a tonal language of the Tai–Kadai language family. It is the official language of Laos, and also spoken in the northeast of Thailand, where it is usually referred to as the Isan
Isan
language. The Lao language
Lao language
serves as an important lingua franca as the country of Laos
Laos
consists of multiple ethnic groups, whose population speaks about 86 different languages.[5] Spoken Lao is mutually intelligible with the Thai language
Thai language
(the two languages are written with slightly different scripts but are linguistically similar).[citation needed] Lao, like many languages in Laos, is written in the Lao script, an abugida
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Shan Language
The Shan language
Shan language
(Shan written: လိၵ်ႈတႆး, pronounced [lik táj] ( listen)), Shan spoken: ၵႂၢမ်းတႆး, pronounced [kwáːm táj] ( listen)), or ၽႃႇသႃႇတႆး, pronounced [pʰàːsʰàː táj]; Burmese: ရှမ်းဘာသာ, pronounced [ʃáɴ bàðà]; Thai: ภาษาไทใหญ่, pronounced [pʰāː.sǎː.tʰāj.jàj]) is the native language of the Shan people
Shan people
and is mostly spoken in Shan State, Burma. It is also spoken in pockets of Kachin State
Kachin State
in Burma, in northern Thailand, and decreasingly in Assam. Shan is a member of the Tai–Kadai language family, and is related to Thai. It has five tones, which do not correspond exactly to Thai tones, plus a "sixth tone" used for emphasis
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Country
A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography. A country may be an independent sovereign state or one that is occupied by another state, as a non-sovereign or formerly sovereign political division, or a geographic region associated with sets of previously independent or differently associated people with distinct political characteristics
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Communist Party Of China
The Communist Party of China
China
(CPC), often referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China. The Communist Party is the sole governing party of China, permitting only eight other, subordinated parties to co-exist, those making up the United Front. It was founded in 1921, chiefly by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao. The party grew quickly and by 1949 it had driven the nationalist Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT) government from mainland China
China
after the Chinese Civil War, thus leading to the establishment of the People's Republic of China
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Han Chinese
The Han Chinese, Han people[27][28][29] or simply Han[28][29][30] (/hɑːn/;[31] Mandarin: [xân]; Han characters: 漢人 (Mandarin pinyin: Hànrén; literally "Han people"[32]) or 漢族 (pinyin: Hànzú; literally "Han ethnicity"[33] or "Han ethnic group"[34])) are an East Asian ethnic group and nation.[35] They constitute the world's largest ethnic group, making up about 18% of the global population. The estimated 1.3 billion Han Chinese
Han Chinese
are mostly concentrated in Mainland China, where they make up about 92% of the total population.[2] The
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Thai People
Thai people
Thai people
or the Thais (Thai: ชาวไทย), also known as Siamese (Thai: ไทยสยาม), are a nation and Tai ethnic group native to Southeast Asia, primarily living mainly Central Thailand
Thailand
(Siamese proper)[23][24][25][26][27][2][28]. As a part of the larger Tai ethnolinguistic group native to Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
as well as southern China
China
and Northeast India, Thais speak the Central Thai language, [29] and is classified as part of the Tai–Kadai family of languages
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Royal Thai General System Of Transcription
The Royal Thai General System of Transcription (RTGS) is the official[1][2] system for rendering Thai words in the Latin alphabet. It was published by the Royal Institute of Thailand.[3][4] It is used in road signs[5] and government publications and is the closest thing to a standard of transcription for Thai, but its use, by even the government, is inconsistent
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Jyutping
Jyutping
Jyutping
(Chinese: 粵拼; Jyutping: Jyut6ping3; Cantonese pronunciation: [jỳːt̚.pʰēŋ]) is a romanisation system for Cantonese
Cantonese
developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is The Linguistic Society of Hong Kong Cantonese
Cantonese
Romanisation
Romanisation
Scheme
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French Indochina
French Indochina
Indochina
(previously spelled as French Indo-China)[1] (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法, IPA: [ɗə̄wŋm jɨ̄əŋ tʰûək fǎp], frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise)[2] after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation
Federation
(French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia. A grouping of the three Vietnamese regions of Tonkin (north), Annam (centre), and Cochinchina (south) with Cambodia
Cambodia
was formed in 1887. Laos
Laos
was added in 1893 and the leased Chinese territory of Guangzhouwan
Guangzhouwan
in 1898
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Xinhai Revolution
Chinese Revolutionary Alliance victory Abdication
Abdication
of Puyi Fall of the Qing dynasty End of Imperial China Establishment of the Republic of China Destabilization of ChinaBelligerents Qing dynasty Provisional Government of the Republic of China Hubei
Hubei
Military Government of the Republic of China Tongmenghui Gelaohui Tiandihui Various other revolutionary groups and forces Regional officials and warlordsCommanders and leaders Empress Dowager Longyu Prince-Regent Zaifeng Prime Minister Yuan Shikai Feng Guozhang Ma Anliang Duan Qirui Yang Zengxin Ma Qi Various other nobles of the Qing dynasty Prov. President Sun Yat-sen General Huang Xing Song Jiaoren Chen Qimei Prov. Vice President Li Yuanhong Prov
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Qing Dynasty
Tael
Tael
(liǎng)Preceded by Succeeded byLater JinShunSouthern MingDzungarRepublic of ChinaMongoliaThe Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing (English: /tʃɪŋ/), was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for the modern Chinese state. It was the fourth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Jurchen, Han Chinese, and Mongol elements
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Republic Of China (1912–49)
The Republic
Republic
of China
China
was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia
Mongolia
and Taiwan. It was founded in 1912, after the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty, was overthrown in the Xinhai Revolution. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, former leader of the Beiyang Army. His party, then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. Song was assassinated shortly after, and the Beiyang Army
Beiyang Army
led by Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
maintained full control of the government in Beijing. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan tried to reinstate the monarchy, before resigning after popular unrest
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Second Sino-Japanese War
Chinese Nationalists (including regional warlords):1,700,000 (1937)[1] 2,600,000 (1939)[2] 5,700,000 (1945)[3] Chinese Communists:166,700 (1938)[4] 488,744 (1940)[5] 1,200,000 (1945)[6] Japanese:600,000 (1937)[7] 1,015,000 (1939)[8] 1,124,900 (1945)[9] (excluding Burma campaign
Burma campaign
and Manchuria) Puppet states and collaborators: 900,000 (1945)[10]Casualties and lossesChinese Nationalists:Official ROC data:1,320,000 killed 1,797,000 wounded 120,000 miss
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