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Xiongnu
The Xiongnu
Xiongnu
(Chinese: 匈奴; Wade–Giles: Hsiung-nu) were a confederation[3] of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe
Asian Steppe
from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD. Chinese sources report that Modu Chanyu, the supreme leader after 209 BC, founded the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
Empire.[4] After their previous overlords, the Yuezhi, migrated into Central Asia during the 2nd century BC, the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
became a dominant power on the steppes of north-east Central Asia, centred on an area known later as Mongolia. The Xiongnu
Xiongnu
were also active in areas now part of Siberia, Inner Mongolia, Gansu
Gansu
and Xinjiang
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Mongolian Revolution Of 1990
In political science, a revolution (Latin: revolutio, "a turn around") is a fundamental change in political power and political organization, which occurs relatively quickly when the population revolt against their oppression (political, social, economic) by the incumbent government.[1] In book V of the Politics, the Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle
Aristotle
(384–322 BC) described two types of political revolution:Complete change from one constitution to another Modification of an existing constitution.[2]Revolutions have occurred through human history and vary widely in terms of methods, duration, and motivating ideology. Their results include major changes in culture, economy, and socio-political institutions, usually in response to overwhelming autocracy or plutocracy. Scholarly debates about what does and does not constitute a revolution center on several issues
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Jyutping
Jyutping
Jyutping
(Chinese: 粵拼; Jyutping: Jyut6ping3; Cantonese pronunciation: [jỳːt̚.pʰēŋ]) is a romanisation system for Cantonese
Cantonese
developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is The Linguistic Society of Hong Kong Cantonese
Cantonese
Romanisation
Romanisation
Scheme
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List Of Medieval Mongol Tribes And Clans
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire
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Mongolic Languages
The Mongolic languages
Mongolic languages
are a group of languages spoken in East-Central Asia, mostly in Mongolia
Mongolia
and surrounding areas plus in Kalmykia. The best-known member of this language family, Mongolian, is the primary language of most of the residents of Mongolia
Mongolia
and the Mongolian residents of Inner Mongolia, China
China
with an estimated 5.7+ million speakers.[3] The closest relatives of the Mongolic languages
Mongolic languages
appear to be the extinct Khitan[1] and Tuyuhun languages
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Manchuria
Manchuria
Manchuria
(simplified Chinese: 满洲; traditional Chinese: 滿洲; pinyin: Mǎnzhōu) was a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia. Depending on the context, Manchuria
Manchuria
can either refer to a region that falls entirely within the People's Republic of China[1][2][3] or a larger region divided between China
China
and Russia
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Mongolian Nobility
The Mongolian nobility
Mongolian nobility
(Mongolian: язгууртан сурвалжтан; yazgurtan survaljtan) arose between the 10th and 12th centuries, became prominent in the 13th century, and essentially governed Mongolia until the early 20th century. The Mongolian word for nobility, Yazgurtan, derives from the Mongol word yazgur, meaning "root".This article contains Mongolian script
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List Of Mongol States
Timeline · History · Rulers · Nobility Culture · Language · Proto-MongolsStatesMongol khanates IX-X Khereid
Khereid
Khanate X-1203 Merkit
Merkit
Khanate XI–XIITatar Khanate IX – XIINaiman Khanate -1204<
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Mongolian Revolution Of 1921
In political science, a revolution (Latin: revolutio, "a turn around") is a fundamental change in political power and political organization, which occurs relatively quickly when the population revolt against their oppression (political, social, economic) by the incumbent government.[1] In book V of the Politics, the Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle
Aristotle
(384–322 BC) described two types of political revolution:Complete change from one constitution to another Modification of an existing constitution.[2]Revolutions have occurred through human history and vary widely in terms of methods, duration, and motivating ideology. Their results include major changes in culture, economy, and socio-political institutions, usually in response to overwhelming autocracy or plutocracy. Scholarly debates about what does and does not constitute a revolution center on several issues
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Mongolian Script
The classical or traditional Mongolian script
Mongolian script
(in Mongolian script: ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ Mongγol bičig; in Mongolian Cyrillic: Монгол бичиг Mongol bichig), also known as Hudum Mongol bichig, was the first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most successful until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946. Derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet,[1] Mongolian is a true alphabet, with separate letters for consonants and vowels. The Mongolian script
Mongolian script
has been adapted to write languages such as Oirat and Manchu
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Mongolian Cyrillic Script
The Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet
Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet
(Mongolian: Монгол Кирилл үсэг, Mongol Kirill üseg or Кирилл цагаан толгой, Kirill tsagaan tolgoi) is the writing system used for the standard dialect of the Mongolian language
Mongolian language
in the modern state of Mongolia. It has a largely phonemic orthography, meaning that there is a fair degree of consistency in the representation of individual sounds. Cyrillic has not been adopted as the writing system in the Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
region of China, which continues to use the traditional Mongolian script. History[edit] Mongolian Cyrillic is the most recent of the many writing systems that have been used for Mongolian
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Old Chinese
Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese.[a] The earliest examples of Chinese are divinatory inscriptions on oracle bones from around 1250 BC, in the late Shang dynasty. Bronze inscriptions became plentiful during the following Zhou dynasty. The latter part of the Zhou period saw a flowering of literature, including classical works such as the Analects, the Mencius, and the Zuozhuan. These works served as models for Literary Chinese (or Classical Chinese), which remained the written standard until the early twentieth century, thus preserving the vocabulary and grammar of late Old Chinese. Old Chinese
Old Chinese
was written with an early form of Chinese characters, with each character representing a monosyllabic word. Although the script is not alphabetic, most characters were created by adapting a character for a similar-sounding word
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Taiwanese Romanization System
The Taiwanese Romanization System
Taiwanese Romanization System
(Taiwanese Romanization: Tâi-uân Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn, Chinese: 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案; pinyin: Táiwān Mǐnnányǔ Luómǎzì Pīnyīn Fāng'àn; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-ôan Lô-má-jī Pheng-im Hong-àn; often referred to as Tâi-lô) is a transcription system for Taiwanese Hokkien
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Southern Min
Southern Min, or Minnan (simplified Chinese: 闽南语; traditional Chinese: 閩南語), is a branch of Min Chinese
Min Chinese
spoken in Taiwan
Taiwan
and in certain parts of China
China
including Fujian
Fujian
(especially the Minnan region), eastern Guangdong, Hainan, and southern Zhejiang.[4] The Minnan dialects are also spoken by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora, most notably the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. It is the largest Min Chinese
Min Chinese
branch and the most widely distributed Min Chinese
Min Chinese
subgroup. In common parlance and in the narrower sense, Southern Min
Southern Min
refers to the Quanzhang or Hokkien-Taiwanese variety of Southern Min
Southern Min
originating from Southern Fujian
Fujian
in Mainland China
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List Of Mongol Rulers
The list of states is chronological but follows the development of different dynasties.Contents1 Khamag Mongol
Khamag Mongol
(1120s–1206) 2 Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
(1206–1368)2.1 Great Khans and Yuan dynasty 2.2 Golden Horde2.2.1 Left
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Yale Romanization Of Cantonese
The Yale romanization of Cantonese
Cantonese
was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook Speak Cantonese
Cantonese
initially circulated in looseleaf form in 1952[1] but later published in 1958.[2] Unlike the Yale romanization of Mandarin, it is still widely used in books and dictionaries, especially for foreign learners of Cantonese. It shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyin
Pinyin
in that unvoiced, unaspirated consonants are represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent voiced sounds. For example, [p] is represented as b in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, [pʰ] is represented as p
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