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Xiaolian
Xiaolian (Chinese: 孝廉; literally "filial and incorrupt"), was the standard of nominating civil officers started by Emperor Wu of Han
Emperor Wu of Han
in 134 BC. It lasted until its replacement by the imperial examination system during the Sui Dynasty. In Confucian philosophy, filial piety is a virtue of respect for one's parents and ancestors.[1] Under the advice of Dong Zhongshu, Emperor Wu ordered each district to recommend one filial and one incorrupt candidate for civil offices. Later the nomination became proportional. Emperor He of Han changed the proportion to one candidate for every 200,000 residents, and one for every 100,000 residents in ethnic minority regions
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Chinese Language
Legend:   Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language   Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers   Major Chinese-speaking settlementsThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Emperor Wu Of Han
Emperor Wu of Han
Emperor Wu of Han
(30 July 157 BC – 29 March 87 BC), born Liu
Liu
Che, courtesy name Tong, was the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141–87 BC.[3] His reign lasted 54 years — a record not broken until the reign of the Kangxi Emperor more than 1,800 years later. His reign resulted in a vast territorial expansion and the development of a strong and centralized state resulting from his governmental re-organization, including his promotion of Confucian doctrines. In the field of historical social and cultural studies, Emperor Wu is known for his religious innovations and patronage of the poetic and musical arts, including development of the Imperial Music Bureau into a prestigious entity
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Imperial Examination
The Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy. Although there were imperial exams as early as the Han dynasty, the system became widely utilized as the major path to office only in the mid-Tang dynasty, and remained so until its abolition in 1905 . Since the exams were based on knowledge of the classics and literary style, not technical expertise, successful candidates were generalists who shared a common language and culture, one shared even by those who failed. This common culture helped to unify the empire and the ideal of achievement by merit gave legitimacy to imperial rule, while leaving clear problems resulting from a systemic lack of technical and practical expertise. The examination helped to shape China's intellectual, cultural, political, shopping, arts and crafts, and religious life
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Sui Dynasty
The Sui Dynasty (/swiː/;[3] Chinese: 隋朝; pinyin: Suí cháo) was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China
China
of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties
Northern and Southern dynasties
and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Han Chinese
Han Chinese
in the entirety of China
China
proper, along with sinicization of former nomadic ethnic minorities (the Five Barbarians) within its territory
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Filial Piety
In Confucian philosophy, filial piety (Chinese: 孝, xiào) is a virtue of respect for one's parents, elders, and ancestors. The Confucian Classic of Filial Piety, thought to be written around the Qin-Han period, has historically been the authoritative source on the Confucian tenet of filial piety. The book, a purported dialogue between Confucius
Confucius
and his student Zengzi, is about how to set up a good society using the principle of filial piety. The term can also be applied to general obedience
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Dong Zhongshu
Dong Zhongshu
Dong Zhongshu
(Chinese: 董仲舒; Wade–Giles: Tung Chung-shu; 179–104 BC) was a Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
Chinese scholar. He is traditionally associated with the promotion of Confucianism
Confucianism
as the official ideology of the Chinese imperial state. He apparently favored heaven worship over the tradition of cults celebrating the five elements.[1] Ultimately banished to the Chancellery of Weifang
Weifang
by his adversary Gongsun Hong, Gongsun effectively promoted Dong's partial retirement from political life, and his teachings were transmitted from there.[2] However, he apparently enjoyed great influence in the court in last decades of his life leading up to that.[3]Contents1 History 2 References2.1 Citations 2.2 Works citedHistory[edit] Dong was born in modern Hengshui, Hebei in 179 BC
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Emperor He Of Han
Emperor He of Han (Chinese: 漢和帝; pinyin: Hàn Hé Dì; Wade–Giles: Han Ho-ti; 79 – 13 February 106) was an emperor of the Chinese Han dynasty who ruled from 88 to 105. He was the 4th emperor of the Eastern Han. Emperor He was the son of Emperor Zhang. He ascended the throne at the age of nine and reigned for 17 years. It was during Emperor He's reign that the Eastern Han began its decline. Strife between consort clans and eunuchs began when the Empress Dowager Dou (Emperor He's adoptive mother) made her own family members important government officials. Her family was corrupt and intolerant of dissension. In 92, Emperor He was able to remedy the situation by removing the empress dowager's brothers with the aid of the eunuch Zheng Zhong and his brother Liu Qing the Prince of Qinghe. This in turn created a precedent for eunuchs to be involved in important affairs of state. These trend would continue to escalate for the next century contributing to the fall of the Han dynasty
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Ethnic Minorities In China
Ethnic minorities in China
China
are the non- Han Chinese
Han Chinese
population in the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
(PRC). China
China
officially recognises 55 ethnic minority groups within China
China
in addition to the Han majority.[1] As of 2010, the combined population of officially recognised minority groups comprised 8.49% of the population of mainland China.[2] In addition to these officially recognised ethnic minority groups, there are PRC nationals who privately classify themselves as members of unrecognised ethnic groups (such as Jewish, Tuvan, Oirat and Ili Turki). The ethnic minority groups officially recognized by the PRC reside within mainland China
China
and Taiwan, whose minorities are called the Taiwanese aborigines
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Han Dynasty
Coordinates: 34°09′21″N 108°56′47″E / 34.15583°N 108.94639°E / 34.15583; 108.94639Han dynasty漢朝206 BC–220 ADA map of the Western Han
Western Han
Dynasty in 2 AD: 1) the territory shaded in dark blue represents the principalities and centrally-administered commanderies of the Han Empire; 2) the light blue area shows the extent of the Tarim Basin
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Nine-rank System
The nine rank system, also known as the nine grade controller system, was used to categorize and classify government officials in Imperial China. Prior to the Nine ranks, official positions were denoted by their salary paid in number of bushels of grain. For example, during the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
the highest-ranking officials were classed as wandan (萬石), meaning ten thousand bushels, and were paid 350 bushels of grain per month. The lowest ranking petty sub-officials were paid in pecks, worth less than 100 bushels per year.[1] A similar system was also used in Korea
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Tang Dynasty
The Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
or the Tang Empire
Empire
(/tɑːŋ/;[3] Chinese: 唐朝[a]) was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. It is generally regarded as a high point in Chinese civilization, and a golden age of cosmopolitan culture.[5] Its territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty, and the Tang capital at Chang'an
Chang'an
(present-day Xi'an) was the most populous city in the world. The dynasty was founded by the Lǐ family (李), who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Xiaolian
Xiaolian (Chinese: 孝廉; literally "filial and incorrupt"), was the standard of nominating civil officers started by Emperor Wu of Han
Emperor Wu of Han
in 134 BC. It lasted until its replacement by the imperial examination system during the Sui Dynasty. In Confucian philosophy, filial piety is a virtue of respect for one's parents and ancestors.[1] Under the advice of Dong Zhongshu, Emperor Wu ordered each district to recommend one filial and one incorrupt candidate for civil offices. Later the nomination became proportional. Emperor He of Han changed the proportion to one candidate for every 200,000 residents, and one for every 100,000 residents in ethnic minority regions
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