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Xeroradiography
Xeroradiography is a type of X-ray
X-ray
imaging in which a picture of the body is recorded on paper rather than on film. In this technique, a plate of selenium, which rests on a thin layer of aluminium oxide, is charged uniformly by passing it in front of a scorotron.[1] The process was developed by engineer Dr. Robert C. McMaster in 1950.[2] As X-ray
X-ray
photon impinges on this amorphous coat of selenium, charges diffuse out, in proportion to energy content of the X-ray. This occurs as a result of photoconduction. The resulting imprint, in the form of charge distribution on the plate, attracts toner particles, which is then transferred to reusable paper plates. In contrast to conventional X-rays, photographic developers are not needed. Hence the term xeroradiography; 'xero' meaning dry in Greek. It requires more radiation exposure
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Medical Diagnosis
Medical diagnosis
Medical diagnosis
(abbreviated Dx[1] or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs. It is most often referred to as diagnosis with the medical context being implicit. The information required for diagnosis is typically collected from a history and physical examination of the person seeking medical care. Often, one or more diagnostic procedures, such as diagnostic tests, are also done during the process. Sometimes posthumous diagnosis is considered a kind of medical diagnosis. Diagnosis
Diagnosis
is often challenging, because many signs and symptoms are nonspecific. For example, redness of the skin (erythema), by itself, is a sign of many disorders and thus does not tell the healthcare professional what is wrong. Thus differential diagnosis, in which several possible explanations are compared and contrasted, must be performed
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Angiocardiography
Angiocardiography is contrast radiography of the heart and great vessels. A liquid radiocontrast agent, typically containing iodine, is injected into the bloodstream, then the tissues are examined using X-rays.[1] To avoid dilution, the radiopaque material is typically introduced with a catheter, a process known as selective angiocardiography. Normally, rather than just a single image, hundreds of X-ray
X-ray
images are rapidly captured on high-speed serial media, such as 35 mm film[2] or a digital imaging counterpart, thus allowing the motion to be observed. The process requires fasting before the test, with a sedative and an antihistamine being administered before the test.[3] Procedure[edit] A catheter is introduced in to the artery in either radial artery or in femoral artery then the catheter is guided in to the heart chamber by moving it across the artery
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Lower Gastrointestinal Series
A lower gastrointestinal series is a medical procedure used to examine and diagnose problems with the human colon (large intestine). Radiographs ( X-ray
X-ray
pictures) are taken while barium sulfate, a radiocontrast agent, fills the colon via an enema through the rectum. The term barium enema usually refers to a lower gastrointestinal series, although enteroclysis (an upper gastrointestinal series) is often called a small bowel barium enema.Contents1 Procedure 2 Preparation 3 Purpose 4 Risks 5 Special
Special
considerations 6 See also 7 External linksProcedure[edit]A barium enema in a disposable bag manufactured for that purposeThis test may be done in a hospital or clinic. The patient lies on the X-ray
X-ray
table and a preliminary X-ray
X-ray
is taken. The patient is then asked to lie on the side while a well lubricated enema tube is inserted into the rectum
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Cholangiography
Cholangiography
Cholangiography
is the imaging of the bile duct (also known as the biliary tree) by x-rays. There are at least two kinds of cholangiography: Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
(PTC): Examination of liver and bile ducts by x-rays. This is accomplished by the insertion of a thin needle into the liver carrying a contrast medium to help to see blockage in liver and bile ducts. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
(ERCP). Although this is a form of imaging, it is both diagnostic and therapeutic, and is often classified with surgeries rather than with imaging.In both cases fluorescent fluids are used to create contrasts that make the diagnosis possible
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Cholecystography
Oral cholecystography is a radiological procedure used to visualize the gallbladder and biliary channels, developed in 1924 by American surgeons Evarts Ambrose Graham
Evarts Ambrose Graham
and Warren Henry Cole. It is usually indicated in cases of suspected gallbladder disease, and can also be used to determine or rule out the presence of intermittent obstruction of the bile ducts or recurrent biliary disease after biliary surgery.[1] A radiopaque cholegraphic (contrast) agent, usually iopanoic acid (Telepaque) or its sodium or calcium salt,[2] is orally administered, which is absorbed by the intestine. This excreted material will collect in the gallbladder, where reabsorption of water concentrates the excreted contrast
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Mammography
Mammography
Mammography
(also called mastography) is the process of using low-energy X-rays (usually around 30 kVp) to examine the human breast for diagnosis and screening. The goal of mammography is the early detection of breast cancer, typically through detection of characteristic masses or microcalcifications. As with all X-rays, mammograms use doses of ionizing radiation to create images. These images are then analyzed for abnormal findings. It is usual to employ lower-energy X-rays, typically Mo (K-shell x-ray energies of 17.5 and 19.6 keV) and Rh (20.2 and 22.7 keV) than those used for radiography of bones. Ultrasound, ductography, positron emission mammography (PEM), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are adjuncts to mammography. Ultrasound
Ultrasound
is typically used for further evaluation of masses found on mammography or palpable masses not seen on mammograms
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Pyelogram
Pyelogram (or pyelography or urography) is a form of imaging of the renal pelvis and ureter.[1] Types include: Intravenous pyelogram
Intravenous pyelogram
In which a contrast solution is introduced through a vein into the circulatory system. This is a form of anterograde pyelogram. Retrograde pyelogram Any pyelogram in which contrast medium is introduced from the lower urinary tract and flows toward the kidney (i.e. in a "retrograde" direction, against the normal flow of urine). Anterograde pyelogram (Also antegrade pyelogram) Any pyelogram where a contrast medium passes from the kidneys toward the bladder, mimicking the normal flow of urine. Gas pyelogram A pyelogram that uses a gaseous rather than liquid contrast medium.[2]References[edit]^ "pyelography" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary ^ Urology Secrets, 2nd Ed.,; Resnick, MD, Novick, MD; Hanley & Belfus, Inc., 1999, esp Chapt
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Cystography
In radiology and urology, a cystography is a procedure used to visualise the urinary bladder. Using a urinary catheter, radiocontrast is instilled in the bladder, and X-ray
X-ray
imaging is performed. Cystography
Cystography
can be used to evaluate bladder cancer, vesicoureteral reflux, bladder polyps, and hydronephrosis. It requires less radiation than pelvic CT, although it is less sensitive and specific than MRI or CT. In adult cases, the patient is typically instructed to void three times, after which a post voiding image is obtained to see how much urine is left within the bladder (residual urine), which is useful to evaluate bladder contraction dysfunction
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Arthrogram
An arthrogram is a series of images of a joint after injection of a contrast medium, usually done by fluoroscopy or MRI. The injection is normally done under a local anesthetic.The radiologist or radiographer performs the study using fluoroscopy or ultrasound to guide the placement of the needle into the joint and then injects an appropriate amount of contrast.Contents1 Related technologies 2 Use 3 Risks 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksRelated technologies[edit] The physician or radiographer then obtains a series of X-rays, or alternatively Computed Tomography
Computed Tomography
(CT) scans or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans. The joint can be imaged from many angles in fluoroscopy, or on a slice by slice basis in CT and MRI scans. Use[edit] Shoulder arthrography can be used to study tears of the rotator cuff, glenoid labrum and biceps.[1] The type of contrast injected into the joint depends on the subsequent imaging that is planned
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Hysterosalpingography
Hysterosalpingography
Hysterosalpingography
(HSG), also known as uterosalpingography,[1] is a radiologic procedure to investigate the shape of the uterine cavity and the shape and patency of the fallopian tubes. It injects a radio-opaque material into the cervical canal and usually fluoroscopy with image intensification. A normal result shows the filling of the uterine cavity and the bilateral filling of the fallopian tube with the injection material. To demonstrate tubal rupture, spillage of the material into the peritoneal cavity needs to be observed.Contents1 Procedure 2 Therapeutic benefit 3 Contraindications 4 History 5 Follow up 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksProcedure[edit] The procedure involves X-rays. It should be done in the follicular phase of the cycle.[2] It is contraindicated in pregnancy
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Skeletal Survey
A skeletal survey (also called a bone survey[1]) is a series of X-rays of all the bones in the body, or at least the axial skeleton and the large cortical bones. A very common use is the diagnosis of multiple myeloma, where tumour deposits appear as "punched-out" lesions. The standard set of X-rays for a skeletal survey includes X-rays of the skull, entire spine, pelvis, ribs, both humeri and femora (proximal long bones). It is more effective than isotope scans at detecting bone involvement in multiple myeloma. Although significantly less sensitive than MRI, it is easier to include more bones
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Angiography
Angiography
Angiography
or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins and the heart chambers. This is traditionally done by injecting a radio-opaque contrast agent into the blood vessel and imaging using X-ray
X-ray
based techniques such as fluoroscopy. The word itself comes from the Greek words ἀγγεῖον angeion, "vessel", and γράφειν graphein, "to write" or "record". The film or image of the blood vessels is called an angiograph, or more commonly an angiogram
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Aortography
Aortography
Aortography
involves placement of a catheter in the aorta and injection of contrast material while taking X-rays of the aorta. The procedure is known as an aortogram. The diagnosis of aortic dissection can be made by visualization of the intimal flap and flow of contrast material in both the true lumen and the false lumen
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Upper Gastrointestinal Series
An upper gastrointestinal series, also called an upper gastrointestinal study or contrast radiography of the upper gastrointestinal tract, is a series of radiographs used to examine the gastrointestinal tract for abnormalities. A contrast medium, usually a radiocontrast agent such as barium sulfate mixed with water, is ingested or instilled into the gastrointestinal tract, and X-rays are used to create radiographs of the regions of interest. The barium enhances the visibility of the relevant parts of the gastrointestinal tract by coating the inside wall of the tract and appearing white on the film. This in combination with other plain radiographs allows for the imaging of parts of the upper gastrointestinal tract such as the pharynx, larynx, esophagus, stomach, and small intestine such that the inside wall lining, size, shape, contour, and patency are visible to the examiner
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Venography
Venography
Venography
(also called phlebography or ascending phlebography) is a procedure in which an x-ray of the veins, a venogram, is taken after a special dye is injected into the bone marrow or veins. The dye has to be injected constantly via a catheter, making it an invasive procedure
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