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Xenophon
XENOPHON OF ATHENS (/ˈzɛnəfən, -ˌfɒn/ ; Greek : Ξενοφῶν Greek pronunciation: , Xenophōn; c. 430–354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher , historian , soldier and mercenary, and a student of Socrates
Socrates
. As a historian, Xenophon
Xenophon
is known for recording the history of his contemporary time, the late-5th and early-4th centuries BC, such as the Hellenica , about the final seven years and the aftermath of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC); as such, the Hellenica is a thematic continuation of Thucydides
Thucydides
' History of the Peloponnesian War . As a mercenary soldier of the Ten Thousand , he participated in the failed campaign of Cyrus the Younger , to claim the Persian throne from his brother Artaxerxes II of Persia , and recounts the events in Anabasis , his most notable history
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Anatolia
ANATOLIA (Turkish : Anadolu, in Modern Greek : Ανατολία, Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ, modern pronunciation Anatolí – "east" or "(sun)rise"), also known as ASIA MINOR (Turkish : Küçük Asya, in Medieval and Modern Greek : Μικρά Ἀσία, Mīkrá Asía, modern pronunciation Mikrá Asía – "small Asia"), ASIAN TURKEY, the ANATOLIAN PENINSULA, or the ANATOLIAN PLATEAU, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia
Asia
, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey
Turkey
. The region is bounded by the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Aegean Sea to the west
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Philosopher
A PHILOSOPHER is someone who practices philosophy , which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside of either theology or science . The term "philosopher" comes from the Ancient Greek φιλόσοφος (philosophos) meaning "lover of wisdom". The coining of the term has been attributed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(6th century BC). In the classical sense, a philosopher was someone who lived according to a certain way of life, focusing on resolving existential questions about the human condition , and not someone who discourses upon theories or comments upon authors. Typically, these particular brands of philosophy are Hellenistic ones and those who most arduously commit themselves to this lifestyle may be considered philosophers
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Diogenes Laërtius
DIOGENES LAëRTIUS (/daɪˈɒdʒɪniːz leɪˈɜːrʃiəs/ ; Greek : Διογένης Λαέρτιος, Diogenēs Laertios; fl. c. 3rd century AD) was a biographer of the Greek philosophers . Nothing is definitively known about his life, but his surviving Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers is a principal source for the history of Greek philosophy . "Diogenes has acquired an importance out of all proportion to his merits because the loss of many primary sources and of the earlier secondary compilations has accidentally left him the chief continuous source for the history of Greek philosophy." CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Writings * 3 Editions and translations * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links LIFEAlthough not definitive, Laërtius must have lived after Sextus Empiricus (c. 200), whom he mentions, and before Stephanus of Byzantium and Sopater of Apamea (c. 500), who quote him
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Black Sea
The BLACK SEA is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean
Ocean
between Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
, the Caucasus
Caucasus
, and Western Asia
Western Asia
. It is supplied by a number of major rivers, such as the Danube
Danube
, Dnieper , Rioni , Southern Bug , and Dniester
Dniester
. The Black Sea
Sea
has an area of 436,400 km2 (168,500 sq mi) (not including the Sea
Sea
of Azov ), a maximum depth of 2,212 m (7,257 ft), and a volume of 547,000 km3 (131,000 cu mi). It is constrained by the Pontic Mountains to the south, Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains to the east, Crimean Mountains to the north, Strandzha to the southwest, Dobrogea Plateau to the northwest, and features a wide shelf to the northwest
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Deme
In Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
, a DEME or DEMOS (Greek : δῆμος) was a suburb of Athens or a subdivision of Attica
Attica
, the region of Greece surrounding Athens . Demes as simple subdivisions of land in the countryside seem to have existed in the 6th century BC and earlier, but did not acquire particular significance until the reforms of Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes
in 508 BC. In those reforms, enrollment in the citizen-lists of a deme became the requirement for citizenship; prior to that time, citizenship had been based on membership in a phratry , or family group. At this same time, demes were established in the city of Athens itself, where they had not previously existed; in all, at the end of Cleisthenes' reforms, Attica
Attica
was divided into 139 demes to which one should add Berenikidai, established in 224/223 BC, Apollonieis (201/200 BC) and Antinoeis (126/127)
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Pharnabazus II
PHARNABAZUS II was a Persian soldier and statesman. He was the son of Pharnaces II of Phrygia and grandson of Pharnabazus I of Phrygia, and great-grandson of Artabazus I . He and his male ancestors had governed the satrapy of Phrygia on the Hellespont from its headquarters at Dascylium since 478 BC. He married Apama, daughter of Artaxerxes II of Persia , and their son Artabazus was a satrap of Phrygia. According to research by Theodor Nöldeke , he was descended from Otanes , one of the associates of Darius in the murder of Smerdis . Pharnabazus II is first recorded as satrap of this province in 413 BC, when, having received orders from Darius II of Persia to send in the outstanding tribute of the Greek cities on the Ionian coast, he, like Tissaphernes of Caria , entered into negotiations with Sparta and began a war with Athens . The conduct of the war was much hindered by the rivalry between the two satraps, of whom Pharnabazus was by far the more energetic and upright
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Thrace
THRACE (/ˈθreɪs/ ; Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: Θράκη, Thráke; Bulgarian : Тракия, Trakiya; Turkish : Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe
Europe
, now split between Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, Greece
Greece
and Turkey
Turkey
, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
to the south and the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the east
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Tigris
The TIGRIS (/ˈtaɪɡrɪs/ ; Sumerian : 𒁇𒄘𒃼 Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian
Akkadian
: 𒁇𒄘𒃼 Idiqlat; Arabic
Arabic
: دجلة‎ Dijlah ; Syriac : ܕܹܩܠܵܬ‎ Deqlaṯ; Armenian : Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ; Hebrew : Ḥîddeqel חידקל‎, biblical Hiddekel; Turkish : Dicle; Kurdish : Dîcle, Dîjla دیجلە‎) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
, the other being the Euphrates
Euphrates
. The river flows south from the mountains of southeastern Turkey
Turkey
through Iraq
Iraq
and empties itself into the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf

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Medes
The MEDES (/miːdz/ , Old Persian Māda-, Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Μῆδοι, Hebrew : מָדַי‎) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran
Iran
) and who spoke the Median language . They mainly inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran
Iran
and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Kermanshah
Kermanshah
- Hamadan
Hamadan
(Ecbatana) region Their emergence in Iran
Iran
is thought to have occurred between 1000 BC to around 900 BC. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle " in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state
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Mesopotamia
MESOPOTAMIA (/ˌmɛsəpəˈteɪmiə/ , Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Μεσοποταμία " between rivers"; Arabic
Arabic
: بلاد الرافدين‎‎ bilād ar-rāfidayn; Kurdish : میزۆپۆتامیا‎; Persian : میان‌رودان‎‎ miyān rudān; Syriac : ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ‎ Beth Nahrain "land of rivers") was a historical region situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system , in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq
Iraq
plus Kuwait
Kuwait
, the eastern parts of Syria
Syria
, Southeastern Turkey
Turkey
, and regions along the Turkish-Syrian and Iran– Iraq
Iraq
borders . The Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the beginning of written history (c
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Soldier
A SOLDIER is one who fights as part of an organized, land-based, sea-based and air based armed-force. A soldier can be an enlisted person , a non-commissioned officer , or an officer in the army . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Occupational designations * 3 Other terms * 4 Career soldiers and conscripts * 4.1 Women as soldiers * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word soldier derives from the Middle English
Middle English
word soudeour, from Old French
Old French
soudeer or soudeour, meaning mercenary, from soudee, meaning shilling's worth or wage, from sou or soud, shilling. The word is also related to the Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
soldarius, meaning soldier (literally, "one having pay")
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Pisidia
PISIDIA (/pᵻˈsɪdiə/ , Greek : Πισιδία, Turkish : Pisidya) was a region of ancient Asia Minor
Asia Minor
located north of Lycia
Lycia
, bordering Caria
Caria
, Lydia
Lydia
, Phrygia and Pamphylia
Pamphylia
, and corresponding roughly to the modern-day province of Antalya
Antalya
in Turkey
Turkey
. Among Pisidia's settlements were Antioch(ia in Pisidia) , Termessos
Termessos
, Cremna , Sagalassos , Etenna
Etenna
, Neapolis , Selge , Tyriacum , Laodiceia Katakekaumene and Philomelium
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Satrap
SATRAPS were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
and the Hellenistic empires. The word SATRAP is also often used metaphorically in modern literature to refer to world leaders or governors who are heavily influenced by larger world superpowers or hegemonies and act as their surrogates. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Medo-Persian satraps * 3 Hellenistic satraps * 4 Parthian and Sassanian satraps * 5 Western satraps * 6 Satraps today * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word satrap is derived via Latin satrapes from Greek satrápēs (σατράπης), itself borrowed from an Old Iranian *xšaθra-pā/ă-
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Greece
GREECE (Greek : Ελλάδα), officially the HELLENIC REPUBLIC (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), historically also known as HELLAS, is a country in Southern Europe
Europe
, with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2016. Athens
Athens
is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
. Greece
Greece
is located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula , it shares land borders with Albania
Albania
to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the north, and Turkey
Turkey
to the northeast
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