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X86 Virtualization
In computing, x86 virtualization refers to hardware virtualization for the x86 architecture. It allows multiple operating systems to simultaneously share x86 processor resources in a safe and efficient manner. In the late 1990s x86 virtualization was achieved by complex software techniques, necessary to compensate for the processor's lack of virtualization support while attaining reasonable performance
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Computing
Computing
Computing
is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers. Computing
Computing
includes designing, developing and building hardware and software systems; designing a mathematical sequence of steps known as an algorithm; processing, structuring, and managing various kinds of information; doing scientific research on and with computers; making computer systems behave intelligently; and creating and using communications and entertainment media
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Athlon 64
The Athlon
Athlon
64 is an eighth-generation, AMD64-architecture microprocessor produced by AMD, released on September 23, 2003.[1] It is the third processor to bear the name Athlon, and the immediate successor to the Athlon
Athlon
XP.[2] The second processor (after the Opteron) to implement AMD64
AMD64
architecture and the first 64-bit processor targeted at the average consumer,[3] it was AMD's primary consumer microprocessor, and competes primarily with Intel's Pentium 4, especially the "Prescott" and "Cedar Mill" core revisions. It is AMD's first K8, eighth-generation processor core for desktop and mobile computers.[4] Despite being natively 64-bit, the AMD64 architecture is backward-compatible with 32-bit
32-bit
x86 instructions.[5] Athlon
Athlon
64s have been produced for Socket 754, Socket 939, Socket 940 and Socket AM2
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Hardware Virtualization
Hardware virtualization
Hardware virtualization
is the virtualization of computers as complete hardware platforms, certain logical abstractions of their componentry, or only the functionality required to run various operating systems. Virtualization hides the physical characteristics of a computing platform from the users, presenting instead an abstract computing plat
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Paravirtualization
In computing, paravirtualization is a virtualization technique that presents to virtual machines a software interface, which is similar yet not identical to the underlying hardware-software interface. The intent of the modified interface is to reduce the portion of the guest's execution time spent performing operations which are substantially more difficult to run in a virtual environment compared to a non-virtualized environment. The paravirtualization provides specially defined 'hooks' to allow the guest(s) and host to request and acknowledge these tasks, which would otherwise be executed in the virtual domain (where execution performance is worse)
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Ported
In software engineering, porting is the process of adapting software for the purpose of achieving some form of execution in a computing environment that is different from the one that a given program (meant for such execution) was originally designed for (e.g. different CPU, operating system, or third party library). The term is also used when software/hardware is changed to make them usable in different environments. Software is portable when the cost of porting it to a new platform is significantly less than the cost of writing it from scratch
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SOSP
The Symposium on Operating Systems Principles (SOSP), organized by the Association for Computing Machinery
Association for Computing Machinery
(ACM), is one of the most prestigious[1][2][3][4][5][6] single-track academic conferences on operating systems. SOSP is held every other year, alternating with the conference on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI). The first SOSP was held in 1967
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80286
The Intel
Intel
80286[1] (also marketed as the iAPX 286[2] and often called Intel
Intel
286) is a 16-bit microprocessor that was introduced on 1 February 1982. It was the first 8086
8086
based CPU with separate, non-multiplexed address and data buses and also the first with memory management and wide protection abilities
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80386
The Intel
Intel
80386, also known as i386 or just 386, is a 32-bit microprocessor introduced in 1985.[1] The first versions had 275,000 transistors[2] and were the CPU of many workstations and high-end personal computers of the time. As the original implementation of the 32-bit
32-bit
extension of the 80286
80286
architecture,[3] the 80386 instruction set, programming model, and binary encodings are still the common denominator for all 32-bit
32-bit
x86 processors, which is termed the i386-architecture, x86, or IA-32, depending on context. The 32-bit
32-bit
80386 can correctly execute most code intended for the earlier 16-bit processors such as 8086
8086
and 80286
80286
that were ubiquitous in early PCs
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AMD Phenom
Phenom /fɪˈnɒm/ is the 64-bit AMD
AMD
desktop processor line based on the K10 microarchitecture,[1] in what AMD
AMD
calls family 10h (10 hex, i.e. 16 in normal decimal numbers) processors, sometimes incorrectly called "K10h". Triple-core versions (codenamed Toliman) belong to the Phenom 8000 series and quad cores (codenamed Agena) to the AMD
AMD
Phenom X4 9000 series. The first processor in the family was released in 2007.Contents1 Background 2 Model naming methodology 3 Cores3.1 Phenom X43.1.1 Agena (65 nm SOI)3.2 Phenom X33.2.1 Toliman (65 nm SOI)4 See also 5 References 6 External linksBackground[edit] AMD
AMD
considers the quad core Phenoms to be the first "true" quad core design, as these processors are a monolithic multi-core design (all cores on the same silicon die), unlike Intel's Core 2 Quad series which are a multi-chip module (MCM) design
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Athlon 64 X2
K8 Microarchitecture ("Kuma" based models are K10 derived)Cores 2Socket(s)Socket 939 AM2 AM2+ (Kuma based models only)Predecessor Athlon
Athlon
64Successor PhenomThe Athlon 64
Athlon 64
X2 is the first native dual-core desktop CPU designed by AMD. It was designed from scratch as native dual-core by using an already multi-CPU enabled Athlon
Athlon
64, joining it with another functional core on one die, and connecting both via a shared dual-channel memory controller/north bridge and additional control logic. The initial versions are based on the E-stepping model of the Athlon 64
Athlon 64
and, depending on the model, have either 512 or 1024 KB of L2 Cache per core
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System/370
The IBM
IBM
System/370 (S/370) was a model range of IBM
IBM
mainframe computers announced on June 30, 1970 as the successors to the System/360 family. The series mostly[NB 1] maintained backward compatibility with the S/360, allowing an easy migration path for customers; this, plus improved performance, were the dominant themes of the product announcement
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Socket AM2
The Socket AM2, renamed from Socket M2 (to prevent using the same name as Cyrix
Cyrix
MII processors), is a CPU socket
CPU socket
designed by AMD
AMD
for desktop processors, including the performance, mainstream and value segments. It was released on May 23, 2006, as a replacement for Socket 939.Contents1 Technical specifications 2 Successors 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksTechnical specifications[edit] AM2 processors are incompatible with 939 motherboards and vice versa, and although it has 940 pins, it is incompatible with Socket 940.[1] Socket AM2
Socket AM2
supports DDR2 SDRAM
DDR2 SDRAM
memory but not DDR memory, which the previous Socket 939
Socket 939
supported
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Opteron
Opteron
Opteron
is AMD's x86 former server and workstation processor line, and was the first processor which supported the AMD64
AMD64
instruction set architecture (known generically as x86-64). It was released on April 22, 2003, with the SledgeHammer core (K8) and was intended to compete in the server and workstation markets, particularly in the same segment as the Intel Xeon
Xeon
processor. Processors based on the AMD K10 microarchitecture (codenamed Barcelona) were announced on September 10, 2007, featuring a new quad-core configuration. The most-recently released Opteron
Opteron
CPUs are the Piledriver-based Opteron
Opteron
4300 and 6300 series processors, codenamed "Seoul" and "Abu Dhabi" respectively
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Phenom (processor)
Phenom /fɪˈnɒm/ is the 64-bit AMD
AMD
desktop processor line based on the K10 microarchitecture,[1] in what AMD
AMD
calls family 10h (10 hex, i.e. 16 in normal decimal numbers) processors, sometimes incorrectly called "K10h". Triple-core versions (codenamed Toliman) belong to the Phenom 8000 series and quad cores (codenamed Agena) to the AMD
AMD
Phenom X4 9000 series. The first processor in the family was released in 2007.Contents1 Background 2 Model naming methodology 3 Cores3.1 Phenom X43.1.1 Agena (65 nm SOI)3.2 Phenom X33.2.1 Toliman (65 nm SOI)4 See also 5 References 6 External linksBackground[edit] AMD
AMD
considers the quad core Phenoms to be the first "true" quad core design, as these processors are a monolithic multi-core design (all cores on the same silicon die), unlike Intel's Core 2 Quad series which are a multi-chip module (MCM) design
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Phenom II
Phenom II
Phenom II
is a family of AMD's multi-core 45 nm processors using the AMD
AMD
K10 microarchitecture, succeeding the original Phenom. Advanced Micro Devices
Advanced Micro Devices
released the Socket AM2+
Socket AM2+
version of Phenom II in December 2008, while Socket AM3
Socket AM3
versions with DDR3
DDR3
support, along with an initial batch of triple- and quad-core processors were released on February 9, 2009.[1] Dual-processor systems require Socket F+ for the Quad FX platform.[2] The next-generation Phenom II
Phenom II
X6 was released on April 27, 2010.[3][4] The Phenom II
Phenom II
X4 operates as the processor component of AMD's Dragon Platform, which also includes the 790 series chipset and Radeon HD 4800 series graphics
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