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X-ray
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV. X-ray
X-ray
wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays
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Voltage
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted ∆V or ∆U, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points. The voltage between two points is equal to the work done per unit of charge against a static electric field to move a test charge between two points
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Hermann Helmholtz
Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields
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Fernando Sanford
Fernando Sanford (February 12, 1854 – May 21, 1948) was an American physicist and university professor. He was one of the 22 "pioneer professors" (founding faculty) for Stanford University.[2] Sanford was born on a farm near Franklin Grove in Lee County, Illinois on February 12, 1854. He was the son of Faxton and Maria Mariah (Bly) Sanford. He attended Carthage College, earning a Bachelor of Science degree in 1879. He taught school until the mid-1880s, then studied physics in Germany under Hermann von Helmholtz
Hermann von Helmholtz
for two years. Returning to the United States, he became a Professor of Physical Science at Lake Forest College. David Starr Jordan, president of Stanford University, chose him as one of the founding professors for Stanford, where he remained until his retirement in 1919.[3] At Stanford he was the founder and first president of the Science Association
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Czech Technical University In Prague
Czech Technical University
University
in Prague
Prague
(Czech: České vysoké učení technické v Praze, ČVUT) is one of the largest universities in the Czech Republic, and is one of the oldest institutes of technology in Central Europe
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University Of Vienna
The University of Vienna
Vienna
(German: Universität Wien) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria. It was founded by Duke Rudolph IV in 1365 and is one of the oldest universities in the German-speaking world. With its long and rich history, the University of Vienna
Vienna
has developed into one of the largest universities in Europe, and also one of the most renowned, especially in the Humanities
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Ukrainians
Ukrainians
Ukrainians
(Ukrainian: українці, ukrayintsi, [ukrɑˈjinʲtsʲi]) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.[49] The Constitution of Ukraine
Ukraine
applies the term 'Ukrainians' to all its citizens. Also among historical names of the people of Ukraine, Rusyns
Rusyns
(Ruthenians), Cossacks, etc. can be found. According to most dictionary definitions, a descriptive name for the "inhabitants of Ukraine" is Ukrainian or Ukrainian people.[50] Rusyns are another related group found in western Ukraine, which are frequently referred to as being an ethnic subgroup of Ukrainians
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Michael Faraday
Michael Faraday
Michael Faraday
FRS (/ˈfæ.rəˌdeɪ/; 22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. His main discoveries include the principles underlying electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism and electrolysis. Although Faraday received little formal education, he was one of the most influential scientists in history. It was by his research on the magnetic field around a conductor carrying a direct current that Faraday established the basis for the concept of the electromagnetic field in physics. Faraday also established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena.[1][2] He similarly discovered the principles of electromagnetic induction and diamagnetism, and the laws of electrolysis
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Humphry Davy
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet
Baronet
PRS MRIA FGS (17 December 1778 – 29 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor,[1] who is best remembered today for isolating a series of substances for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine. He also studied the forces involved in these separations, inventing the new field of electrochemistry
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Royal Society Of London
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society
Royal Society
of London for Improving Natural Knowledge,[1] commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society. Founded in November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by King Charles II as "The Royal Society".[1] It is the oldest national scientific institution in the world.[2] The society is the United Kingdom's and Commonwealth of Nations' Academy of Sciences
Academy of Sciences
and fulfils a number of roles: promoting science and its benefits, recognising excellence in science, supporting outstanding science, providing scientific advice for policy, fostering international and global co-operation, education and public engagement. The society is governed by its Council, which is chaired by the Society's President, according to a set of statutes and standing orders
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William Morgan (actuary)
William Morgan, FRS (26 May 1750 – 4 May 1833) was a British physician, physicist and statistician, who is considered the father of modern actuarial science. Life[edit] He was born in Bridgend, Glamorganshire, son to physician William Morgan and Sarah, née Price. His brother was George Cadogan Morgan. At eighteen he came to London for medical training at Guy's Hospital, working also as an apothecary to pay his way. He did not complete his training, but after one year returned to Bridgend
Bridgend
to join his father's practice. He was not popular with his father's patients: they thought him inexperienced and they resented receiving treatment from someone with a deformity—Morgan suffered from a club foot. After his father's death he left medicine and, on the recommendation of his mother's brother, Richard Price, in 1774 was appointed Assistant Actuary
Actuary
of The Equitable Life Assurance Society
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Anode
An anode is an electrode through which conventional current flows into a polarized electrical device. This contrasts with a cathode, an electrode through which current flows out of an electrical device. A common mnemonic is ACID for "anode current into device".[1] The direction of conventional current in a circuit is opposite to the direction of electron flow, so (negatively charged) electrons flow out the anode into the outside circuit
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Kilovolt
The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.[1] It is named after the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (1745–1827).Contents1 Definition1.1 Josephson junction definition2 Water-flow analogy 3 Common voltages 4 History 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksDefinition[edit] One volt is defined as the difference in electric potential between two points of a conducting wire when an electric current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power between those points.[2] It is also equal to the potential difference between two parallel, infinite planes spaced 1 meter apart that create an electric field of 1 newton per coulomb. Additionally, it is the potential difference between two points that will impart one joule of energy per coulomb of charge that passes through it
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Stanford University
Stanford University
University
(officially Leland Stanford
Leland Stanford
Junior University,[11] colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California. Because of its academic strength, wealth, and proximity to Silicon Valley, Stanford is often cited as one of the world's most prestigious universities.[12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19] The university was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford
Jane Stanford
in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford
Leland Stanford
Jr., who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year. Stanford was a former Governor of California
California
and U.S. Senator; he made his fortune as a railroad tycoon
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Ionization
Ionization
Ionization
(Ionisation), is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.[1] Ionization
Ionization
can result from the loss of an electron after collisions with subatomic particles, collisions with other atoms, molecules and ions, or through the interaction with light. Heterolytic bond cleavage and heterolytic substitution reactions can result in the formation of ion pairs
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Cathode Ray
Cathode
Cathode
rays (also called an electron beam or e-beam) are streams of electrons observed in vacuum tubes. If an evacuated glass tube is equipped with two electrodes and a voltage is applied, glass behind the positive electrode is observed to glow, due to electrons emitted from and traveling away from the cathode (the electrode connected to the negative terminal of the voltage supply). They were first observed in 1869 by German physicist Johann Wilhelm Hittorf, and were named in 1876 by Eugen Goldstein Kathodenstrahlen, or cathode rays.[1][2] In 1897, British physicist J. J. Thomson
J. J. Thomson
showed that cathode rays were composed of a previously unknown negatively charged particle, which was later named the electron
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