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Writing System
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer.[1] The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage, although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display, on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting. The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries, or logographies. Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category
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Mora (linguistics)
A mora (plural morae or moras; often symbolized μ) is a unit in phonology that determines syllable weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing. The definition of a mora varies. In 1968, American linguist James D. McCawley
James D

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Consonant
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are [p], pronounced with the lips; [t], pronounced with the front of the tongue; [k], pronounced with the back of the tongue; [h], pronounced in the throat; [f] and [s], pronounced by forcing air through a narrow channel (fricatives); and [m] and [n], which have air flowing through the nose (nasals)
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Information
Information
Information
is any entity or form that resolves uncertainty or provides the answer to a question of some kind. It is thus related to data and knowledge, as data represents values attributed to parameters, and knowledge signifies understanding of real things or abstract concepts.[1] As it regards data, the information's existence is not necessarily coupled to an observer (it exists beyond an event horizon, for example), while in the case of knowledge, the information requires a cognitive observer.[citation needed] Information
Information
is conveyed either as the content of a message or through direct or indirect observation
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Communication
Communication
Communication
(from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share"[1]) is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules. The main steps inherent to all communication are: [2]The formation of communicative motivation or reason. Message
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Information Transfer
In telecommunications, information transfer is the process of moving messages containing user information from a source to a sink via a Communication channel. In this sense, information transfer is equivalent to data transmission which highlights more practical, technical aspects. The information transfer rate may or may not be equal to the transmission modulation rate. Bidirectional information transfer is called information exchange. Non-technical meaning[edit] In a non-technical context, information transfer is sometimes used to signify knowledge transfer or teaching. See also[edit] Federal Standard 1037C in support of MIL-STD-188.This article related to telecommunications is a stub
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Character (symbol)
A character is a sign or symbol.Contents1 History 2 Grapheme 3 Esotericism and magic 4 Semiotics and epistemology 5 See also 6 ReferencesHistory[edit] Greek χαρακτήρ is a nomen agentis of the verb χαράσσω (charassō) with a meaning "to sharpen, to whet", and also "to make cake",[1] from a PIE root *g'ʰer- "cut" also continued in Irish gearr and English gash, which is perhaps an early loan ultimately from the same Greek root.[2] A χαρακτήρ is thus an "engraver", originally in the sense of a craftsman, but then also used for a tool used for engraving, and for a stamp for minting coins. From the stamp, the meaning was extended to the stamp impression, Plato
Plato
using the noun in the sense of "engraved mark". In Plutarch, the word could refer to a figure or letter, Lucian uses it of hieroglyphs as opposed to Greek grammata (Herm
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Shorthand
Shorthand
Shorthand
is an abbreviated symbolic writing method that increases speed and brevity of writing as compared to longhand, a more common method of writing a language. The process of writing in shorthand is called stenography, from the Greek stenos (narrow) and graphein (to write). It has also been called brachygraphy, from Greek brachys (short) and tachygraphy, from Greek tachys (swift, speedy), depending on whether compression or speed of writing is the goal. Many forms of shorthand exist. A typical shorthand system provides symbols or abbreviations for words and common phrases, which can allow someone well-trained in the system to write as quickly as people speak. Abbreviation
Abbreviation
methods are alphabet-based and use different abbreviating approaches. Several autocomplete programs, standalone or integrated in text editors, based on word lists, also include a shorthand function for frequently used phrases
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Display Device
A display device is an output device for presentation of information in visual[1] or tactile form (the latter used for example in tactile electronic displays for blind people).[2] When the input information that is supplied has an electrical signal, the display is called an electronic display. Common applications for electronic visual displays are televisions or computer monitors.Contents1 Segment displays1.1 Underlying technologies2 Full-area 2-dimensional
2-dimensional
displays2.1 Applications 2.2 Underlying technologies3 Three-dimensional 4 Mechanical types 5 History 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksSegment displays[edit]Digital clocks display changing numbers.Some displays can show only digits or alphanumeric characters. They are called segment displays, because they are composed of several segments that switch on and off to give appearance of desired glyph. The segments are usually single LEDs or liquid crystals
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Letter (alphabet)
A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing. It is a visual representation of the smallest unit of spoken sound. Letters broadly correspond to phonemes in the spoken form of the language, although there is rarely a consistent, exact correspondence between letters and phonemes. Written signs in other writing systems are called syllabograms (which denote a syllable) or logograms (which indicate a word or phrase).Contents1 Definition and usage1.1 A classical definition2 History 3 Types of letters3.1 Various scripts 3.2 Upper and lower case 3.3 Typeface
Typeface
and font4 Letter frequencies 5 See also 6 References 7 Sources 8 External linksDefinition and usage[edit] Further information: Grapheme, Glyph, and Character (symbol) The contemporary English-language alphabet, known as Roman style, consists of twenty-six letters
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Symbol
A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship. Symbols allow people to go beyond what is known or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different concepts and experiences. All communication (and data processing) is achieved through the use of symbols. Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures, ideas or visual images and are used to convey other ideas and beliefs. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a blue line might represent a river. Numerals are symbols for numbers. Alphabetic letters may be symbols for sounds. Personal names are symbols representing individuals. A red rose may symbolize love and compassion
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Message
A message is a discrete unit of communication intended by the source for consumption by some recipient or group of recipients. A message may be delivered by various means, including courier, telegraphy, carrier pigeon and electronic bus. A message can be the content of a broadcast. An interactive exchange of messages forms a conversation. One example of a message is a communiqué (pronounced /kəˈmjuːnɪkeɪ/), which is a brief report or statement released by a public agency.Contents1 Roles in human consumption 2 In computer science 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksRoles in human consumption[edit] In communication between humans, messages can be verbal or nonverbal:A verbal message is an exchange of information using words. Examples include face-to-face communication, telephone calls, voicemails, etc. A nonverbal message is communicated through actions or behaviors rather than words, e.g
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Spoken Language
A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language. Many languages have no written form and so are only spoken. An oral language or vocal language is a language produced with the vocal tract, as opposed to a sign language, which is produced with the hands and face. The term "spoken language" is sometimes used to mean only vocal languages, especially by linguists, making all three terms synonyms by excluding sign languages. Others refer to sign language as "spoken", especially in contrast to written transcriptions of signs.[1][2][3] In spoken language, much of the meaning is determined by the context. That contrasts with written language in which more of the meaning is provided directly by the text. In spoken language, the truth of a proposition is determined by common-sense reference to experience, but in written language, a greater emphasis is placed on logical and coherent argument
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Syllable
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. For example, the word water is composed of two syllables: wa and ter. A syllable is typically made up of a syllable nucleus (most often a vowel) with optional initial and final margins (typically, consonants). Syllables are often considered the phonological "building blocks" of words. They can influence the rhythm of a language, its prosody, its poetic meter and its stress patterns. Syllabic writing
Syllabic writing
began several hundred years before the first letters. The earliest recorded syllables are on tablets written around 2800 BC in the Sumerian city of Ur. This shift from pictograms to syllables has been called "the most important advance in the history of writing".[1] A word that consists of a single syllable (like English dog) is called a monosyllable (and is said to be monosyllabic)
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Phoneme
A phoneme (/ˈfoʊniːm/) is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language. For example, in most dialects of English, the sound patterns /θʌm/ (thumb) and /dʌm/ (dumb) are two separate words distinguished by the substitution of one phoneme, /θ/, for another phoneme, /d/. (Two words like this that differ in meaning through a contrast of a single phoneme form what is called a minimal pair). In many other languages these would be interpreted as exactly the same set of phonemes (i.e. /θ/ and /d/ would be considered the same). In linguistics, phonemes (usually established by the use of minimal pairs, such as kill vs kiss or pat vs bat) are written between slashes, e.g. /p/
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Code
In communications and information processing, code is a system of rules to convert information—such as a letter, word, sound, image, or gesture—into another form or representation, sometimes shortened or secret, for communication through a communication channel or storage in a storage medium. An early example is the invention of language, which enabled a person, through speech, to communicate what they saw, heard, felt, or thought to others. But speech limits the range of communication to the distance a voice can carry, and limits the audience to those present when the speech is uttered. The invention of writing, which converted spoken language into visual symbols, extended the range of communication across space and time. The process of encoding converts information from a source into symbols for communication or storage
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