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Worshipful Company Of Brewers
The Worshipful Company of Brewers
Worshipful Company of Brewers
is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London. London brewers are known to have organised as a group in the 13th century. Their first royal charter was granted by Henry VI in 1438. In 1643 Parliament imposed excise taxes on beer, ale, and malt, steadily increasing them until gin became cheaper, causing the growth of unlicensed breweries, and in 1685 James II extended the company's jurisdiction to 8 miles around London and its suburbs. In 1739 it adopted new by-laws, which included the requirement for members to "enter into a bond in £2,00 with the company against any expenses of their being elected to the office of sheriff or lord mayor".[1] The company started to go into decline about 1750. They are the Trustees of the Dame Alice Owen Foundation, which supports Dame Alice Owen's School. The Brewers' Company ranks 14th in the order of precedence of Livery Companies
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Royal Charter
A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate. They were, and are still, used to establish significant organisations such as cities (with municipal charters) or universities and learned societies. Charters should be distinguished from warrants and letters of appointment, as they have perpetual effect. Typically, a Royal Charter is produced as a high-quality work of calligraphy on vellum. The British monarchy has issued over 980 royal charters.[1] Of these about 750 remain in existence. The earliest was to the town of Tain
Tain
in 1066, making it the oldest Royal Burgh in Scotland, followed by the University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
in 1231
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Henry VI Of England
Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471) was King of England
King of England
from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne at the age of nine months upon his father's death, and succeeded to the French throne on the death of his maternal grandfather Charles VI shortly afterwards. Henry inherited the long-running Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War
(1337–1453), in which Charles VII contested his claim to the French throne. His early reign, during which several people were ruling for him, saw the height of English power in France, but subsequent military, diplomatic, and economic problems resulted in the decline of English fortunes in the war
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James II
James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701[1]) was King of England
King of England
and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland
King of Scotland
as James VII,[3] from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. He was the last Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland. The second surviving son of Charles I, he ascended the throne upon the death of his brother, Charles II. Members of Britain's Protestant political elite increasingly suspected him of being pro-French and pro-Catholic and of having designs on becoming an absolute monarch. When he produced a Catholic heir, a son called James Francis Edward, leading nobles called on his Protestant son-in-law and nephew William III of Orange to land an invasion army from the Dutch Republic, which he did in the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
of 1688
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Order Of Precedence
Argentina Australia Bangladesh Barbados Belgium Brazil Canada Alberta British Columbia Manitoba New Brunswick Nova Scotia Ontario Prince Edward Island Quebec Saskatchewan Yukon China Hong Kong Macau Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Guatemala Holy See India Indonesia Israel Italy Jamaica Malaysia Johor Kedah Kelantan Malacca Negeri Sembilan Pahang Penang Perak Perlis Sabah Sarawak Selangor Terengganu Malta New Zealand Nepal Norway Pakistan Poland Poland-Lithuania (hist.) Portugal Philippines Romania Russia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Singapore Sweden Switzerland Thailand Turkey United Kingdom England and Wales Scotland  Northern Ireland United Statesv t e Order of precedence is a sequential hierarchy of nominal importance of persons
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Great Fire Of London
The Great Fire of London
Great Fire of London
was a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of the English city of London from Sunday, 2 September to Wednesday, 5 September 1666.[1] The fire gutted the medieval City of London
City of London
inside the old Roman city wall. It threatened but did not reach the aristocratic district of Westminster, Charles II's Palace of Whitehall, and most of the suburban slums.[2] It consumed 13,200 houses, 87 parish churches, St Paul's Cathedral, and most of the buildings of the City authorities. It is estimated to have destroyed the homes of 70,000 of the City's 80,000 inhabitants.[3] The death toll is unknown but traditionally thought to have been small, as only six verified deaths were recorded
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Worshipful Company Of Carpenters
Carpentry
Carpentry
is a skilled trade in which the primary work performed is the cutting, shaping and installation of building materials during the construction of buildings, ships, timber bridges, concrete formwork, etc. Carpenters traditionally worked with natural wood and did the rougher work such as framing, but today many other materials are also used[1] and sometimes the finer trades of cabinetmaking and furniture building are considered carpentry. Carpentry
Carpentry
in the United States
United States
is almost always done by men
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Worshipful Company Of Weavers
The Worshipful Company of Weavers is the most ancient of the Livery Companies in the City of London. It existed in the year 1130, and was perhaps formed earlier. The Company received a Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1155. At present, the Company retains a connection to textiles through its contributions to the textile industry. It has, however, like most other Livery Companies, evolved into a charitable institution rather than remaining a trade association. The Company ranks forty-second in the order of precedence of the Livery Companies
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Worshipful Company Of Plumbers
The Worshipful Company of Plumbers
Worshipful Company of Plumbers
is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London. The organisation received the right to regulate medieval plumbers, who were, among other things, responsible for fashioning cisterns, in 1365. It was incorporated under a Royal Charter in 1611. Today, the Company is no longer a trade association, instead existing as a charitable institution. (The Company retains a link to plumbing by awarding medals and prizes in the general building industry.) The Plumbers' Company ranks thirty-first in the order of precedence of Livery Companies. Its mottoes are Justicia Et Pax, Latin
Latin
for Justice and Peace, and In God Is All Our Hope. Court members have included Fiona Woolf
Fiona Woolf
and Paul Flatt. External links[edit]The Worshipful Company of PlumbersReferences[edit]^ "Statue: Plumber's Apprentice statue". London Remembers
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Worshipful Company Of Girdlers
The Worshipful Company of Girdlers
Worshipful Company of Girdlers
is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London. Girdlers were granted the right to regulate their trade in the City from 1327 and obtained a Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1449. Girdlers, or makers of belts and girdles, are no longer closely related to their original trade. Along with the products of many other Livery Companies, girdles have become of less importance than in medieval times. However, the Company continues its long tradition as a charitable body.[1][2] The Girdlers' Company ranks twenty-third in the order of precedence of City Livery Companies
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Worshipful Company Of Butchers
The Worshipful Company of Butchers
Butchers
is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London, England. Records indicate that an organisation of Butchers
Butchers
existed as early as 975; the Butchers' Guild, the direct predecessor of the present Company, was granted the right to regulate the trade in 1331. The Butchers' Guild was incorporated by Royal Charter centuries later, in 1605. The Butchers' still, unlike other Livery Companies, continues to exist as a trade association for members of the industry, instead of evolving into an institution primarily dedicated to charity. However, the Company does contribute, like all Livery Companies, to various charities. The Company ranks twenty-fourth in the order of precedence of City Livery Companies
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Worshipful Company Of Saddlers
The Worshipful Company of Saddlers
Worshipful Company of Saddlers
is one of the Livery Companies
Livery Companies
of the City of London. A Guild of Saddlers, the Company's predecessor, is thought to have been an Anglo-Saxon Craft Guild – it certainly existed at some point in the eleventh century. The Guild became a Company when a Royal Charter
Royal Charter
of Incorporation was granted by King Edward III in 1363. The City granted the Company the right to regulate the trade of saddle-making; all saddlers in and within two miles of the City were subject to the Company's regulations. However, the powers of the Company, which has existed on the same site at Cheapside (formerly West Chepe) since 1160, were eroded over time. Nowadays the Company retains strong affiliations with the saddlery trade, sponsoring the Society of Master Saddlers and giving prizes for deserving young riders at equestrian events
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Worshipful Company Of Cordwainers
The Worshipful Company of Cordwainers is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London. Cordwainers were workers in fine leather; the Company gets its name from "cordwain" (cordovan), the white leather produced from goatskin in Cordova, Spain. All fine leather makers, including Girdlers and Glovers, were originally classified as cordwainers; however, the term eventually came to refer only to fine leather footwear, including boots. The Cordwainers' Company, which received the right to regulate City trade in 1272 (the same year as the Curriers), obtained a Royal Charter of incorporation in 1439. The status of the Company as a trade association has lessened over the years;[1] the Company is now, as are most other Livery Companies, a charitable body
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Worshipful Company Of Painter-Stainers
The Worshipful Company of Painter-Stainers
Worshipful Company of Painter-Stainers
is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London. An organisation of painters of metals and wood, is known to have existed as early as 1283. A similar organisation of stainers, who generally worked on staining cloth for decorative wall hangings, existed as early as 1400. The two bodies merged in 1502; the new organisation was incorporated under a Royal Charter in 1581. Today, the Company is less of a trade association of painters, and more of a charitable company with the promotion of education in the fine and decorative arts and crafts as its main theme; The Painters’ Company Scholarship Scheme was established in 2012 to support undergraduates every year at London Art Colleges. Each student receives £5,000 annually from the beginning of their second year until they complete their studies, and they are known as a Painters’ Company Scholar
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Worshipful Company Of Curriers
The Worshipful Company of Curriers
Worshipful Company of Curriers
is one of the ancient livery companies of London, associated with the leather trade. The curriers, or "curers of leather", of London
London
formed an organisation in 1272; this merchant guild was recognised in 1415 by Ordinances of the City Common Council before its grant of a Royal Charter
Royal Charter
by King James I in 1605. The company now exists, as do most other livery companies, as an education and charitable institution, the traditional process of currying having been made more or less obsolete by technological advances. The Curriers' Company, like other livery companies, supports the work of the Lord Mayor, the City Corporation and the Sheriffs of London.[2] The company ranks 29th in the order of precedence of City livery companies
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Worshipful Company Of Masons
The Worshipful Company of Masons is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London, England. The Masons (entirely unrelated to the Freemasons) were formed during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
to regulate stonemasons. They were formally incorporated under a Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1677. Its members have taken part in the construction several famous structures, including Saint Paul's Cathedral. Like most Livery Companies, the Company does not retain its original role as an association of craftsmen. It does support the craft of stonemasonry, however, along with several charities. The Masons' Company ranks thirtieth in the order of precedence of Livery Companies
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