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World Tree
The world tree is a motif present in several religions and mythologies, particularly Indo-European religions, Siberian religions, and Native American religions. The world tree is represented as a colossal tree which supports the heavens, thereby connecting the heavens, the terrestrial world, and, through its roots, the underworld
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Mongols
The Mongols
Mongols
(Mongolian: Монголчууд, ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud, [ˈmɔŋ.ɡɔɮ.t͡ʃʊːt]) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia
Mongolia
and China's Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
Autonomous Region. They also live as minorities in other regions of China
China
(e.g. Xinjiang), as well as in Russia. Mongolian people belonging to the Buryat and Kalmyk subgroups live predominantly in the Russian federal subjects of Buryatia
Buryatia
and Kalmykia. The Mongols
Mongols
are bound together by a common heritage and ethnic identity. Their indigenous dialects are collectively known as the Mongolian language
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Hraesvelgr
In Norse mythology, Hræsvelgr (Old Norse "Corpse Swallower") is a giant who takes the form of an eagle. According to stanza 37 of the poem Vafþrúðnismál from the Poetic Edda, he sits at the end of the world (or the northern edge of the heavens) and causes the wind to blow when he beats his wings in flight. This is repeated by Snorri in the Gylfaginning section of his Prose Edda. Hræsvelgr's name is sometimes anglicised as Hraesvelgr, Hresvelgr, Hraesveglur, or Hraesvelg. The common Danish form is Ræsvelg and the common Swedish form is Räsvelg. References[edit]Faulkes, Anthony (transl.) (1987). Edda (Snorri Sturluson). Everyman. ISBN 0-460-87616-3. Larrington, Carolyne (transl.) (1996). The Poetic Edda. Oxford World's Classics. ISBN 0-19-283946-2.Further reading[edit]Jón Hnefill Aðalsteinsson (1998). "Hræsvelgr, the Wind-Giant, Reinterpreted" in A Piece of Horse Liver: Myth, Ritual and Folklore in Old Icelandic Sources
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Poetic Edda
Poetic Edda is the modern attribution for an unnamed collection of Old Norse anonymous poems, which is different from the Edda, written by Snorri Sturluson. Several versions exist, all consisting primarily of text from the Icelandic medieval manuscript known as the Codex Regius. The Codex Regius
Codex Regius
is arguably the most important extant source on Norse mythology and Germanic heroic legends, and from the early 19th century onwards, it has had a powerful influence on later Scandinavian literatures, not merely by the stories it contains but also by the visionary force and dramatic quality of many of the poems. It has also become an inspiring model for many later innovations in poetic meter, particularly in Nordic languages, offering many varied examples of terse, stress-based metrical schemes working without any final rhyme by instead using alliterative devices and strongly-concentrated imagery
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Snorri Sturluson
Snorri Sturluson[1] (Icelandic: [ˈsnɔrɪ ˈstʏrtlʏsɔn]; 1179 – 23 September 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet, and politician. He was elected twice as lawspeaker to the Icelandic parliament, the Althing. He was the author of the Prose Edda
Prose Edda
or Younger Edda, which consists of Gylfaginning
Gylfaginning
("the fooling of Gylfi"), a narrative of Norse mythology, the Skáldskaparmál, a book of poetic language, and the Háttatal, a list of verse forms
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Fraxinus Excelsior
Fraxinus
Fraxinus
excelsior — known as the ash, or European ash or common ash to distinguish it from other types of ash — is a flowering plant species in the olive family Oleaceae. It is native throughout mainland Europe[1] east to the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Alborz
Alborz
mountains
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Æsir
In Old Norse, ǫ́ss (or áss, ás, plural æsir; feminine ásynja, plural ásynjur) is a member of the principal pantheon in Norse religion. This pantheon includes Odin, Frigg, Thor, Baldr
Baldr
and Týr.[1] The second pantheon is known as the Vanir. In Norse mythology, the two pantheons wage war against each another, which results in a unified pantheon. The cognate term in Old English
Old English
is ōs (plural ēse) denoting a deity in Anglo-Saxon paganism. The Old High German
Old High German
is ans, plural ensî.[2] The Gothic language
Gothic language
had ans- (based only on Jordanes
Jordanes
who glossed anses with uncertain meaning, possibly 'demi-god' and presumably a Latinized form of actual plural *anseis).[3] The reconstructed Proto-Germanic form is *ansuz (plural *ansiwiz)
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Urðarbrunnr
Urðarbrunnr
Urðarbrunnr
( Old Norse
Old Norse
"Well of Urðr"; either referring to a Germanic concept of fate—urðr—or the norn named Urðr[1]) is a well in Norse mythology. Urðarbrunnr
Urðarbrunnr
is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, and the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. In both sources, the well lies beneath the world tree Yggdrasil, and is associated with a trio of norns (Urðr, Verðandi, and Skuld). In the Prose Edda, Urðarbrunnr
Urðarbrunnr
is cited as one of three wells existing beneath three roots of Yggdrasil
Yggdrasil
that reach into three distant, different lands; the other two wells being Hvergelmir, located beneath a root in Niflheim, and Mímisbrunnr, located beneath a root near the home of the frost jötnar
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Hvergelmir
In Norse mythology, Hvergelmir
Hvergelmir
( Old Norse
Old Norse
"bubbling boiling spring"[1]) is a major spring
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Mímisbrunnr
In Norse mythology, Mímisbrunnr
Mímisbrunnr
( Old Norse
Old Norse
"Mímir's well"[1]) is a well associated with the being Mímir, located beneath the world tree Yggdrasil. Mímisbrunnr
Mímisbrunnr
is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, and the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. The well is located beneath one of three roots of the world tree Yggdrasil, a root that passes into the land of the frost jötnar where the primordial plane of Ginnungagap once existed
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Deer
Deer
Deer
(singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. The two main groups are the Cervinae, including the muntjac, the elk (wapiti), the fallow deer and the chital, and the Capreolinae, including the reindeer (caribou), the roe deer and the moose. Female reindeer, and male deer of all species (except the Chinese water deer), grow and shed new antlers each year
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Dáinn, Dvalinn, Duneyrr And Duraþrór
In Norse mythology, four stags or harts (male red deer) eat among the branches of the World Tree Yggdrasill. According to the Poetic Edda, the stags crane their necks upward to chomp at the branches. Their names are given as Dáinn, Dvalinn, Duneyrr and Duraþrór. An amount of speculation exists regarding the deer and their potential symbolic value.Contents1 Primary sources 2 Theories 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesPrimary sources[edit] The poem Grímnismál, a part of the Poetic Edda, is the only extant piece of Old Norse poetry
Old Norse poetry
to mention the stags. 1967 W. H. Auden
W. H. Auden
& P. B
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Norse Dragon
In Norse mythology
Norse mythology
there are several references to dragons (Old Norse: dreki). Níðhöggr
Níðhöggr
is identified as a dragon in the Völuspá Jörmungandr, also known as the Midgard
Midgard
Serpent, is described as a giant, venomous beast Fáfnir
Fáfnir
is turned into a dragon as part of the Völsung
Völsung
Cycle The Gesta Danorum
Gesta Danorum
contains a description of a dragon killed by Frotho IThis article relating to a Norse myth or legend is a stub
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Prose Edda
The Prose Edda, also known as the Younger Edda, Snorri's Edda (Icelandic: Snorra Edda) or, historically, simply as Edda, is an Old Norse work of literature written in Iceland
Iceland
in the early 13th century. The work is often assumed to have been written, or at least compiled, by the Icelandic scholar, lawspeaker and historian Snorri Sturluson around the year 1220. It begins with a euhemerized Prologue, a section on the Norse cosmogony, pantheon and myths.[1] This is followed by three distinct books: Gylfaginning
Gylfaginning
(consisting of around 20,000 words), Skáldskaparmál
Skáldskaparmál
(around 50,000 words) and Háttatal (around 20,000 words). Seven manuscripts, dating from around 1300 to around 1600, have independent textual value. Sturluson planned the collection as a textbook
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Mímameiðr
In Norse mythology, Mímameiðr (Old Norse "Mimi's tree"[1]) is a tree whose branches stretch over every land, is unharmed by fire or metal, bears fruit that assists pregnant women, and upon whose highest bough roosts the cock Víðópnir. Mímameiðr is solely attested in the Old Norse poem Fjölsvinnsmál. Due to parallels between descriptions of the two, scholars theorize that Mímameiðr may be another name for the world tree Yggdrasil, and also Hoddmímis holt, a wood within which Líf and Lífthrasir are foretold to take refuge during the events of Ragnarök. Mímameiðr is sometimes modernly anglicized as Mimameid or Mimameith.[2]Contents1 Fjölsvinnsmál 2 Theories 3 Notes 4 ReferencesFjölsvinnsmál[edit] Mímameiðr is mentioned in stanzas of the eddic-meter poem Fjölsvinnsmál, where the tree is described as having limbs that stretch over every land, bearing helpful fruit, and as harboring the cock Víðópnir
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Læraðr
Læraðr is a tree in Norse mythology, often identified with Yggdrasill. It stands at the top of the Valhöll. Two animals, the goat Heiðrún and the hart Eikþyrnir, graze its foliage.Contents1 Etymology 2 Attestations2.1 Poetic Edda 2.2 Prose Edda3 Theories 4 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The meaning of Læraðr / Léraðr is unclear. One of the meanings of læ is "harm", "betrayal"
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