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World Chess Championship
The World Chess
Chess
Championship (sometimes abbreviated as WCC) is played to determine the World Champion in chess. The official world championship is generally regarded to have begun in 1886, when the two leading players in Europe and the United States, Johann Zukertort
Johann Zukertort
and Wilhelm Steinitz
Wilhelm Steinitz
respectively, played a match. From 1886 to 1946, the champion set the terms, requiring any challenger to raise a sizable stake and defeat the champion in a match in order to become the new world champion. From 1948 to 1993, the championship was administered by FIDE, the World Chess
Chess
Federation. In 1993, the reigning champion (Garry Kasparov) broke away from FIDE, which led to the creation of the rival PCA championship
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Harper's Weekly
Harper's Weekly, A Journal of Civilization was an American political magazine based in New York City. Published by Harper & Brothers from 1857 until 1916, it featured foreign and domestic news, fiction, essays on many subjects, and humor, alongside illustrations. It carried extensive coverage of the American Civil War, including many illustrations of events from the war. During its most influential period, it was the forum of the political cartoonist Thomas Nast.Contents1 History1.1 Inception 1.2 Civil War coverage 1.3 "President maker" 1.4 Early 1900s 1.5 1970s2 Publications 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] Inception[edit]Harper & Brothers founders Fletcher, James, John and Joseph Wesley Harper (1860)Along with his brothers James, John, and Wesley, Fletcher Harper began the publishing company Harper & Brothers in 1825
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Chess Player's Chronicle
The Chess
Chess
Player's Chronicle, founded by Howard Staunton
Howard Staunton
and extant from 1841–56 and 1859–62, was the world's first successful English-language magazine devoted exclusively to chess. Various unrelated but identically or similarly named publications were published until 1902.Page from Chess
Chess
Player's Chronicle in a style of descriptive notationThe earliest chess magazine in any language was the French Le Palamède, published in 1836-39 and 1842-47.[1] In 1837 George Walker introduced an English-language magazine, the Philidorian, that was devoted to "chess and other scientific games"
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The Times
The Times
The Times
is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register, adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. The Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times
The Sunday Times
(founded in 1821) are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, itself wholly owned by News Corp
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Alexander The Great
Alexander
Alexander
III of Macedon
Macedon
(20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander
Alexander
the Great (Ancient Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, translit. Aléxandros ho Mégas, Koine
Koine
Greek: [a.lék.san.dros ho mé.gas]), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon[a] and a member of the Argead
Argead
dynasty. He was born in Pella
Pella
in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of twenty
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François-André Danican Philidor
Philidor (Filidor) or Danican Philidor was a family of musicians that served as court musicians to the French kings. The original name of the family was Danican (D'Anican) and was of Scottish origin (Duncan). Philidor was a later addition to the family name, given first to Michel the elder by Louis XIII because his oboe playing reminded the king of an Italian virtuoso oboist named Filidori. Both Michel the younger and Jean played in the Grande Écurie (literally, the Great Stable; figuratively, the Military Band) in Paris. Later members of the family were known as composers as well. One of them (François-André Danican Philidor) was a chess master.Michel Danican Philidor the elder (1580–1651)Michel Danican Philidor the younger (c. 1610–1659) Jean Danican Philidor (c
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Legall De Kermeur
François Antoine[1] de Legall de Kermeur (1702–92) was a French chess player. His name is variously written Kermur, Sire de Legalle, by Twiss, and Kermur and Kermuy, Sire de Legal, by others. In the List of Subscribers to Philidor's second edition it stands as in Twiss, but the spelling was, probably, in both cases Philidor's own.[2] Along with other famous players, he played in Paris's Café de la Régence, and is considered to have been possibly the strongest player in the world around the 1730s.[3] He taught chess to François-André Philidor. The following portray of Legall is given in the London Magazine, May 1825 in an article titled " Chess
Chess
and Chess
Chess
Players by an ancient Amateur":I am probably, without any exception, the oldest chess-player in Europe. I have not only had the honour of contending "on the checquer'd field" with M. Philidor, but I have frequently played at the Cafe de la Regence with M
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Gioachino Greco
Gioacchino Greco (c. 1600 – c. 1634) was an Italian chess player and writer. He recorded some of the earliest chess games known. His games, all against anonymous opponents ("NN"), were quite possibly constructs (Hooper & Whyld 1992), but served as highly useful tools for spotting opening traps. Mikhail Botvinnik
Mikhail Botvinnik
considered Greco to be the first professional chess player (Gufeld & Stetsko 1996:5). Gioacchino Greco was also known in Italy
Italy
as "il Calabrese", which means "the Calabrian"
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Leonardo Da Cutri
Giovanni Leonardo di Bona or Giovanni Leonardo da Cutri (both given names can be seen also in the reversed order Leonardo Giovanni), known as Il Puttino
Il Puttino
(Italian Small Child) (1542–1597), was an early Italian chess master. Giovanni Leonardo was born in Cutro, Calabria. He studied law in Rome. In 1560, he lost a match to Ruy López in Rome. In 1566–1572, he travelled and played chess in Rome, Genoa, Marseille, Barcelona. He had played many times against Paolo Boi in Italy
Italy
and they were regarded as being equal in strength. Giovanni Leonardo di Bona won the first known international master tournament in the history of chess in Madrid
Madrid
in 1575, therefore becoming the strongest chess master of the time
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Paolo Boi
Paolo Boi (1528–1598) was an Italian chess player. He is considered to have been one of the greatest chess players of the 16th century. He was born in Syracuse, Sicily (now Italy) and died in Naples. Historian H. J. R. Murray
H. J. R. Murray
says he was poisoned by jealous rivals. Other sources say he caught a cold when hunting and died as a result of it. References[edit]Hooper, David; Whyld, Kenneth (1992), "Boi, Paolo", The Oxford Companion to Chess
Chess
(2nd ed.), Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-280049-3 External links[edit] Paolo Boi player profile and games at Chessgames.comThis biographical article relating to an Italian chess figure is a stub
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Ruy López De Segura
Rodrigo (Ruy) López de Segura
Segura
(c. 1530 – c. 1580) was a Spanish priest and later bishop in Segura
Segura
whose 1561 book Libro de la invención liberal y arte del juego del Axedrez was one of the first definitive books about modern chess in Europe, preceded only by Pedro Damiano's 1512 book, Luis Ramírez de Lucena's 1497 book (the oldest surviving printed book on chess), and the Göttingen manuscript (authorship and exact date of the manuscript are unknown). He was born in Zafra
Zafra
near Badajoz, and he studied and lived in Salamanca. In 1560 he won a match against Leonardo di Bona
Leonardo di Bona
in Rome
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Tassilo Von Heydebrand Und Der Lasa
Tassilo, Baron von Heydebrand und der Lasa (known in English as "Baron von der Lasa", 17 October 1818, Berlin
Berlin
– 27 July 1899, Storchnest near Lissa, Greater Poland, then German Empire) was an important German chess master, chess historian and theoretician of the nineteenth century, a member of the Berlin
Berlin
Chess
Chess
Club and a founder of the Berlin
Berlin
Chess
Chess
School (the Berlin
Berlin
Pleiades). His name is usually abbreviated as "von der Lasa", as this is how he signed his letters.[1] However both contemporary and more recent writers have used other abbreviations, such as "von Heydebrandt" (which is a misspelling)[2] and "Der Lasa". The Prussian King (later Emperor) William I made a joke out of the confusion by saying, "Good morning, dear Heydebrand. How is von der Lasa doing?"[3] Von der Lasa was born 17 October 1818 in Berlin
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Hugh Alexander Kennedy
Hugh Alexander Kennedy
Hugh Alexander Kennedy
(22 August 1809 – 22 October 1878) was an English chess master[1] and writer.[2]Contents1 Chess career 2 "Napoleon" game 3 Writings 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksChess career[edit] Hugh Alexander Kennedy
Hugh Alexander Kennedy
was born in Madras, India in 1809.[3] He was a former British army captain and leading London chess player
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Ludwig Bledow
Dr Ludwig Erdmann Bledow (27 July 1795, Berlin
Berlin
– 6 August 1846, Berlin) was a German chess master and chess organizer (co-founder of the Berlin
Berlin
Pleiades). In 1846 he founded the first German chess magazine, Schachzeitung der Berliner Schachgesellschaft, which would later take the name Deutsche Schachzeitung.Contents1 Influence on the game 2 Playing strength 3 Notable games 4 References 5 External linksInfluence on the game[edit] Several details of the game's moves and competition rules had not yet been universally agreed in Bledow's time, and some were still being debated in 1851.[1] Bledow, influenced by Karl Schorn, agreed that a player should be allowed to have multiple queens (as a result of pawn promotions), so that chess rules in Germany
Germany
fell in line with the French and English way of playing
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Henry Bird (chess Player)
Henry
Henry
may refer to:Contents1 People1.1 Royalty2 Places2.1 Settlements 2.2 Craters3 Arts and entertainment 4 Other 5 See alsoPeople[edit] Henry
Henry
(given name) Henry
Henry
(surname)Royalty[edit] See also: List of rulers named HenryPortuguese royaltyKing-Cardinal Henry, King of Portugal Henry, Count of Portugal, a.k.a
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Adolf Anderssen
Karl Ernst Adolf Anderssen
Adolf Anderssen
(July 6, 1818 – March 13, 1879)[1] was a German chess master. He is considered to have been the world's leading chess player for much of the 1850s and 1860s. He was quite soundly defeated by Paul Morphy
Paul Morphy
who toured Europe in 1858, but Morphy retired from chess soon after and Anderssen was again considered the leading player. After his defeat by Steinitz in 1866, Anderssen became the most successful tournament player in Europe, winning over half the events he entered—including the Baden-Baden
Baden-Baden
1870 chess tournament, one of the strongest tournaments of the era. He achieved most of these successes when he was over the age of 50. Anderssen is famous even today for his brilliant sacrificial attacking play, particularly in the "Immortal Game" (1851) and the "Evergreen Game" (1852)
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