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World Geodetic System
The World Geodetic System
World Geodetic System
(WGS) is a standard for use in cartography, geodesy, and navigation including GPS
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Legenda (satellite System)
Legenda, or the MKRC Legenda system, is a Soviet satellite targeting system mated to the SS-N-19
SS-N-19
missile. It consisted of the US-P SIGINT satellites and the US-A Radar Ocean reconnaissance satellites, which were nuclear powered.[1] Legenda is now believed to be non-functional after the US-A sats were deactivated. See also[edit]P-700 GranitReferences[edit]^ Brian Harvey The Rebirth of the Russian Space Program: 50 Years After 2007 "The US P (“P” for “passive”; industry code of 11F120) program began with Cosmos 699 in 1974, becoming operational as the Legenda system in 1978. US P5 are built by the Arsenal Design Bureau in St. Petersburg. Thirty-six were launched .. Russian reconnaissance satellitesIMINTPhotographicYantar Zenit Orlets AlmazElectro-opticalAraks Arkon Enisei Kobalt PersonaSIGINTELINTTselina-2 LianaMASINTSecondary MissionOko US-KMO EKSKosmosThis Soviet Union–related article is a stub
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Map Projection
A map projection is a systematic transformation of the latitudes and longitudes of locations from the surface of a sphere or an ellipsoid into locations on a plane.[1] Maps cannot be created without map projections. All map projections necessarily distort the surface in some fashion. Depending on the purpose of the map, some distortions are acceptable and others are not; therefore, different map projections exist in order to preserve some properties of the sphere-like body at the expense of other properties. There is no limit to the number of possible map projections.[2]:1 More generally, the surfaces of planetary bodies can be mapped even if they are too irregular to be modeled well with a sphere or ellipsoid; see below. Even more generally, projections are a subject of several pure mathematical fields, including differential geometry, projective geometry, and manifolds
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Greenwich Meridian
Coordinates: 51°28′40.12″N 0°00′05.31″W / 51.4778111°N 0.0014750°W / 51.4778111; -0.0014750Tourists taking pictures with the Prime Meridian monument Laser
Laser
projected from the Royal Observatory in Greenwich
Greenwich
marking the Prime meridian.A prime meridian, based at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, in London, England,[1] was established by Sir George Airy in 1851. By 1884, over two-thirds of all ships and tonnage used it as the reference meridian on their charts and maps. In October of that year, at the behest of US President Chester A. Arthur, 41 delegates from 25 nations met in Washington, D.C., United States, for the International Meridian Conference
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Cartography
Cartography
Cartography
(from Greek χάρτης khartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively. The fundamental problems of traditional cartography are to:Set the map's agenda and select traits of the object to be mapped. This is the concern of map editing. Traits may be physical, such as roads or land masses, or may be abstract, such as toponyms or political boundaries. Represent the terrain of the mapped object on flat media. This is the concern of map projections. Eliminate characteristics of the mapped object that are not relevant to the map's purpose. This is the concern of generalization. Reduce the complexity of the characteristics that will be mapped
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Minute Of Arc
A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to 1/60 of one degree. Since one degree is 1/360 of a turn (or complete rotation), one minute of arc is 1/7004216000000000000♠21600 of a turn. A minute of arc is π/7004108000000000000♠10800 of a radian. A second of arc, arcsecond (arcsec), or arc second is 1/60 of an arcminute, 1/7003360000000000000♠3600 of a degree, 1/7006129600000000000♠1296000 of a turn, and π/7005648000000000000♠648000 (about 1/7005206265000000000♠206265) of a radian
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IERS Reference Meridian
The IERS Reference Meridian
IERS Reference Meridian
(IRM), also called the International Reference Meridian, is the prime meridian (0° longitude) maintained by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS)
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Center Of Mass
In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating. The distribution of mass is balanced around the center of mass and the average of the weighted position coordinates of the distributed mass defines its coordinates. Calculations in mechanics are often simplified when formulated with respect to the center of mass. It is a hypothetical point where entire mass of an object may be assumed to be concentrated to visualise its motion. In other words, the center of mass is the particle equivalent of a given object for application of Newton's laws of motion. In the case of a single rigid body, the center of mass is fixed in relation to the body, and if the body has uniform density, it will be located at the centroid
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Equipotential Surface
Equipotential
Equipotential
or isopotential in mathematics and physics refers to a region in space where every point in it is at the same potential.[1][2][3] This usually refers to a scalar potential (in that case it is a level set of the potential), although it can also be applied to vector potentials. An equipotential of a scalar potential function in n-dimensional space is typically an (n−1)dimensional space. The del operator illustrates the relationship between a vector field and its associated scalar potential field. An equipotential region might be referred as being 'of equipotential' or simply be called 'an equipotential'. An equipotential region of a scalar potential in three-dimensional space is often an equipotential surface, but it can also be a three-dimensional region in space
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Gravitation
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another, including objects ranging from atoms and photons, to planets and stars. Since energy and mass are equivalent, all forms of energy (including light) cause gravitation and are under the influence of it. On Earth, gravity gives weight to physical objects, and the Moon's gravity causes the ocean tides. The gravitational attraction of the original gaseous matter present in the Universe
Universe
caused it to begin coalescing, forming stars – and for the stars to group together into galaxies – so gravity is responsible for many of the large scale structures in the Universe
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Altitude
Altitude
Altitude
or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more). As a general definition, altitude is a distance measurement, usually in the vertical or "up" direction, between a reference datum and a point or object. The reference datum also often varies according to the context
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Navigation
Navigation
Navigation
is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.[1] The field of navigation includes four general categories: land navigation, marine navigation, aeronautic navigation, and space navigation.[2] It is also the term of art used for the specialized knowledge used by navigators to perform navigation tasks
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SK-42 Reference System
The SK-42 reference system also known as the Krasovsky 1940 ellipsoid, is a coordinate system established in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1942 as Systema koordinat (Russian: Система координат 1942 года), and provides parameters which are linked to the geocentric Cartesian coordinate system
Cartesian coordinate system
PZ-90. It was used in geodetic calculations, notably in military mapping and determining state borders.[1] The Krasovsky 1940 ellipsoid uses a semi-major axis (equatorial radius) a of 6,378,245 m, and an inverse flattening 1/f of 298.3.[2]:220 Citations and notes[edit]^ slide 11, Borodko ^ Office, United States Naval Observatory Nautical Almanac; Office, Great Britain Nautical Almanac (2005). Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac
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Quasi-Zenith Satellite System
The Quasi- Zenith
Zenith
Satellite System (QZSS) (or Juntencho eisei shisutemu (準天頂衛星システム) in Japanese) is a project of the Japanese government for the development of a four-satellite regional time transfer system and a satellite-based augmentation system for the United States
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Satellite Navigation
A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning. It allows small electronic receivers to determine their location (longitude, latitude, and altitude/elevation) to high precision (within a few metres) using time signals transmitted along a line of sight by radio from satellites. The system can be used for providing position, navigation or for tracking the position of something fitted with a receiver (satellite tracking). The signals also allow the electronic receiver to calculate the current local time to high precision, which allows time synchronisation. Satnav systems operate independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the positioning information generated. A satellite navigation system with global coverage may be termed a global navigation satellite system (GNSS)
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Equator
An equator is the intersection of the surface of a rotating sphere (such as a planet) with the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation and midway between its poles. On Earth, the Equator
Equator
is an imaginary line on the surface, equidistant from the North and South Poles, dividing the Earth
Earth
into Northern and Southern Hemispheres
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