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Worcester Cathedral
WORCESTER CATHEDRAL, before the English Reformation
English Reformation
known as WORCESTER PRIORY, is an Anglican cathedral in Worcester
Worcester
, England; situated on a bank overlooking the River Severn
River Severn
. It is the seat of the Bishop
Bishop
of Worcester. Its official name is the CATHEDRAL CHURCH OF CHRIST AND THE BLESSED MARY THE VIRGIN OF WORCESTER. Built between 1084 and 1504, Worcester
Worcester
Cathedral
Cathedral
represents every style of English architecture from Norman to Perpendicular Gothic . It is famous for its Norman crypt and unique chapter house , its unusual Transitional Gothic bays, its fine woodwork and its "exquisite" central tower, which is of particularly fine proportions
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Oswald Of Worcester
OSWALD OF WORCESTER (died 29 February 992) was Archbishop of York from 972 to his death in 992. He was of Danish ancestry, but brought up by his uncle, Oda , who sent him to France to the abbey of Fleury to become a monk. After a number of years at Fleury, Oswald returned to England at the request of his uncle, who died before Oswald returned. With his uncle's death, Oswald needed a patron and turned to another kinsman, Oskytel , who had recently become Archbishop of York. His activity for Oskytel attracted the notice of Archbishop Dunstan who had Oswald consecrated as Bishop of Worcester
Bishop of Worcester
in 961. In 972, Oswald was promoted to the see of York, although he continued to hold Worcester
Worcester
also. As bishop and archbishop, Oswald was a supporter and one of the leading promoters (together with Æthelwold ) of Dunstan's reforms of the church, including monastic reforms
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Bede
BEDE (/ˈbiːd/ BEED ; Old English : Bǣda or Bēda; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as SAINT BEDE, VENERABLE BEDE, and BEDE THE VENERABLE ( Latin
Latin
: Bēda Venerābilis), was an English monk at the monastery of St. Peter and its companion monastery of St. Paul in the Kingdom of Northumbria
Kingdom of Northumbria
of the Angles
Angles
(contemporarily Monkwearmouth– Jarrow
Jarrow
Abbey in Tyne and Wear , England
England
). He is well known as an author and scholar, and his most famous work, Ecclesiastical History of the English People
Ecclesiastical History of the English People
gained him the title "The Father of English History "
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Fleury Abbey
FLEURY ABBEY (FLORIACUM) in Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire , Loiret
Loiret
, France, founded about 640, is one of the most celebrated Benedictine monasteries of Western Europe, which possesses the relics of St. Benedict of Nursia
Benedict of Nursia
. Its site on the banks of the Loire has always made it easily accessible from Orléans , a center of culture unbroken since Roman times. Today the abbey has over forty monks and is headed by the abbot Etienne Ricaud. Abbo of Fleury (died 1004) a monk and abbot of Fleury was a theologian of wide-ranging intellect; his life was written by the chronicler Aimoin , also a monk of Fleury. Andrew of Fleury (writing c 1043) wrote Miracula sancti Benedicti. Hugh of Fleury (died after 1118) was a monk of Fleury known for his chronicles and other writings
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Priory
A PRIORY is a monastery of men or women under religious vows that is headed by a prior or prioress. Priories may be houses of mendicant friars or religious sisters (as the Dominicans , Augustinians , Franciscans
Franciscans
, and Carmelites , for instance), or monasteries of monks or nuns (as the Benedictines
Benedictines
). Houses of canons regular and canonesses regular also use this term, the alternative being "canonry". In pre-Reformation England, if an Abbey
Abbey
church was raised to cathedral status, the abbey became a Cathedral Priory. The bishop, in effect, took the place of the abbot, and the monastery itself was headed by a prior. HISTORYPriories first came to existence as subsidiaries to the Abbey
Abbey
of Cluny . Many new houses were formed that were all subservient to the abbey of Cluny and called Priories
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Bank Of England
The BANK OF ENGLAND, formally the GOVERNOR AND COMPANY OF THE BANK OF ENGLAND, is the central bank of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the model on which most modern central banks have been based. Established in 1694, it is the second oldest central bank in operation today, after the Sveriges Riksbank
Sveriges Riksbank
. The Bank of England
England
is the world\'s 8th oldest bank . It was established to act as the English Government 's banker and is still one of the bankers for the Government of the United Kingdom . The Bank was privately owned by stockholders from its foundation in 1694 until it was nationalised in 1946. In 1998, it became an independent public organisation, wholly owned by the Treasury Solicitor
Treasury Solicitor
on behalf of the government, with independence in setting monetary policy
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Cathedral
A CATHEDRAL is a Christian church which contains the seat of a bishop , thus serving as the central church of a diocese , conference , or episcopate . The counterpart term for such a church in German is Dom from Latin
Latin
domus ecclesiae or domus episcopalis; also Italian Duomo
Duomo
, Dutch Domkerk and cognates in many other European languages. Churches with the function of "cathedral" are usually specific to those Christian denominations with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Roman Catholic , Anglican , Orthodox , and some Lutheran and Methodist churches
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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British Banknotes
£1 (Not used by the Bank of England
Bank of England
or in NI), £100 (Not used by the Bank of England) Higher valued Banknotes do exist, such as the £1,000,000 (Giant) and £100,000,000 (Titan), however, usage is restricted "- such as through backing Scottish and Northern Ireland Currencies" DEMOGRAPHICS USERS United Kingdom Jersey
Jersey
Guernsey
Guernsey
Isle of Man
Isle of Man
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
St Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha ( Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
only) Gibraltar
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Henry VIII Of England
HENRY VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. Henry was the second Tudor monarch , succeeding his father, Henry VII . Henry is best known for his six marriages and, in particular, his efforts to have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon , annulled. His disagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation , separating the Church of England from papal authority and appointing himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England
Church of England
. Despite his resulting excommunication , Henry remained a believer in core Catholic theological teachings. Domestically, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution , ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings to England
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Cambridge University Library
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY is the main research library of the University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
in England
England
. It is also the biggest of 114 libraries within the University. The Library is a major scholarly resource for both the members of the University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
and for external researchers. Cambridge
Cambridge
University Library comprises the main University Library and its affiliated libraries. As at August 2015, 21 affiliated libraries were associated with the main University Library, which is often referred to within the University as "the University Library" or just "the UL"
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Cloister
A CLOISTER (from Latin
Latin
claustrum, "enclosure") is a covered walk, open gallery, or open arcade running along the walls of buildings and forming a quadrangle or garth. The attachment of a cloister to a cathedral or church, commonly against a warm southern flank, usually indicates that it is (or once was) part of a monastic foundation, "forming a continuous and solid architectural barrier... that effectively separates the world of the monks from that of the serfs and workmen, whose lives and works went on outside and around the cloister." Cloistered (or claustral) life is also another name for the monastic life of a monk or nun in the enclosed religious orders ; the modern English term enclosure is used in contemporary Catholic church law translations to mean cloistered, and some form of the Latin
Latin
parent word "claustrum" is frequently used as a metonymic name for monastery in languages such as German
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Alec Clifton-Taylor
ALEC CLIFTON-TAYLOR OBE (2 August 1907 – 1 April 1985) was an English architectural historian , writer and TV broadcaster. CONTENTS * 1 Biography and works * 2 Personal life * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHY AND WORKSBorn Alec Clifton Taylor (no hyphen), the son of Stanley Edgar Taylor, corn-merchant, and Ethel Elizabeth Taylor (née Hills), in 1907 at Whitepost House, Overton Road in Sutton, Surrey, Clifton-Taylor was educated at Bishop\'s Stortford College and at the Queen\'s College, Oxford . He went on to the Courtauld Institute of Art . During World War II
World War II
he served in the Admiralty. His best-known and most influential book is The Pattern of English Building (1962) (ISBN 0-571-14890-5 ), an examination of the architectural vernacular . It orders its subject according to the building materials and methods used in England
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Capital (architecture)
In architecture the CAPITAL (from the Latin
Latin
caput, or "head") or CHAPITER forms the topmost member of a column (or a pilaster ). It mediates between the column and the load thrusting down upon it, broadening the area of the column's supporting surface. The capital, projecting on each side as it rises to support the abacus , joins the usually square abacus and the usually circular shaft of the column. The capital may be convex, as in the Doric order
Doric order
; concave, as in the inverted bell of the Corinthian order
Corinthian order
; or scrolling out, as in the Ionic order
Ionic order
. These form the three principal types on which all capitals are based. The Composite order
Composite order
(illustration, right), established in the 16th century on a hint from the Arch of Titus
Arch of Titus
, adds Ionic volutes to Corinthian acanthus leaves
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Liturgy Of The Hours
The LITURGY OF THE HOURS ( Latin
Latin
: Liturgia Horarum) or DIVINE OFFICE (Latin: Officium Divinum) or WORK OF GOD (Latin: Opus Dei) or CANONICAL HOURS , often referred to as the BREVIARY , is the official set of prayers "marking the hours of each day and sanctifying the day with prayer". It consists primarily of psalms supplemented by hymns , readings and other prayers and antiphons . Together with the Mass , it constitutes the official public prayer life of the Church. The Liturgy of the Hours also forms the basis of prayer within Christian monasticism . Celebration of the Liturgy of the Hours
Liturgy of the Hours
is an obligation undertaken by priests and deacons intending to become priests, while deacons intending to remain deacons are obliged to recite only a part. The constitutions of religious institutes generally oblige their members to celebrate at least parts and in some cases to do so jointly ("in choir")
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Transept
A TRANSEPT (with two SEMITRANSEPTS) is a transverse part of any building, which lies across the main body of the edifice. In churches, a transept is an area set crosswise to the nave in a cruciform ("cross -shaped") building within the Romanesque and Gothic Christian church architectural traditions. Each half of a transept is known as a semitransept. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Other senses of the word * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTIONThe transept of a church separates the nave from the sanctuary , apse , choir , chevet , presbytery or chancel . The transepts cross the nave at the crossing , which belongs equally to the main nave axis and to the transept. Upon its four piers , the crossing may support a spire (e.g., Salisbury Cathedral
Salisbury Cathedral
), a central tower (e.g., Gloucester Cathedral
Cathedral
) or a crossing dome (e.g., St Paul\'s Cathedral
Cathedral
)
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