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Worcester
WORCESTER (/ˈwʊstər/ ( listen ) WUUS-tər ) is a city in Worcestershire
Worcestershire
, England
England
, 31 miles (50 km) southwest of Birmingham and 27 miles (43 km) north of Gloucester
Gloucester
. The population is approximately 100,000. The River Severn
River Severn
flanks the western side of the city centre, which is overlooked by the 12th century Worcester Cathedral . The Battle of Worcester
Battle of Worcester
was the final battle of the English Civil War , where Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
's New Model Army defeated King Charles I\'s Cavaliers
Cavaliers
. Worcester
Worcester
is known as the home of Royal Worcester Porcelain , composer Edward Elgar
Edward Elgar
, Lea text-transform: lowercase;">BC
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Postcodes In The United Kingdom
Postal codes used in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
are known as POSTCODES (originally postal codes). They are alphanumeric and were adopted nationally between 11 October 1959 and 1974, having been devised by the GPO ( Royal Mail
Royal Mail
). A full postcode is known as a "postcode unit" and designates an area with a number of addresses or a single major delivery point. Postcodes have been adopted for a wide range of purposes in addition to aiding the sorting of the mail: for calculating insurance premiums, designating destinations in route planning software and as the lowest level of aggregation in census enumeration. The boundaries of each postcode unit and within these the full address data of currently about 29 million addresses (delivery points) are stored, maintained and periodically updated in the Postcode Address File
File
database
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Telephone Numbering Plan
A TELEPHONE NUMBERING PLAN is a type of numbering scheme used in telecommunication to assign telephone numbers to subscriber telephones or other telephony endpoints. Telephone numbers are the addresses of participants in a telephone network, reachable by a system of destination code routing. Telephone numbering plans are defined in each of administrative regions of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and they are also present in private telephone networks. For public number systems, geographic location plays a role in the sequence of numbers assigned to each telephone subscriber. Numbering plans may follow a variety of design strategies which have often arisen from the historical evolution of individual telephone networks and local requirements. A broad division is commonly recognized, distinguishing open numbering plans and closed numbering plans
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ONS Coding System
In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, the OFFICE FOR NATIONAL STATISTICS maintains a series of codes to represent a wide range of geographical areas of the UK, for use in tabulating census and other statistical data. These codes are referred to as ONS CODES or GSS CODES referring to the Government Statistical Service of which ONS is part. The previous hierarchical system of codes has been replaced as from January 2011 by a nine-character code for all types of geography, in which there is no relation between the code for a lower-tier area and the corresponding parent area. The older coding system has now been phased out
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British Summer Time
During BRITISH SUMMER TIME (BST), civil time in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is advanced one hour forward of Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time
(GMT) (in effect, changing the time zone from UTC +0 to UTC+1), so that evenings have more daylight and mornings have less. BST begins at 01:00 GMT on the last Sunday of March and ends at 01:00 GMT (02:00 BST) on the last Sunday of October. Since 22 October 1995 the starting and finishing times of daylight saving time across the European Union
European Union
have been aligned – for instance Central European Summer Time begins and ends on the same Sundays at exactly the same time (that is, 02:00 CET , which is 01:00 GMT). Between 1972 and 1995, BST began and ended at 02:00 GMT on the third Sunday in March (or second Sunday when Easter fell on the third) and fourth Sunday in October
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Daylight Saving Time
DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME (abbreviated DST), commonly referred to as DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME in speech, and known as SUMMER TIME in some countries, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Typically, regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time. George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895. The German Empire
German Empire
and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
organized the first nationwide implementation, starting on April 30, 1916. Many countries have used it at various times since then, particularly since the energy crisis of the 1970s . DST is generally not observed near the equator, where sunrise times do not vary enough to justify it
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Greenwich Mean Time
GREENWICH MEAN TIME (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich
Greenwich
, London
London
. GMT was formerly used as the international civil time standard, now superseded in that function by Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC) . Today GMT is considered equivalent to UTC for UK civil purposes (but this is not formalised) and for navigation is considered equivalent to UT1 (the modern form of mean solar time at 0° longitude); these two meanings can differ by up to 0.9 s. Consequently, the term GMT should not be used for precise purposes
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UTC0
UTC±00:00 is the following time: * Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC), the basis for the world's civil time. * Western European Time (Ireland , Portugal
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Ordnance Survey National Grid
The ORDNANCE SURVEY NATIONAL GRID REFERENCE SYSTEM is a system of geographic grid references used in Great Britain, distinct from latitude and longitude . It is often called BRITISH NATIONAL GRID (BNG). The Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
(OS) devised the national grid reference system, and it is heavily used in their survey data, and in maps based on those surveys, whether published by the Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
or by commercial map producers. Grid references are also commonly quoted in other publications and data sources, such as guide books and government planning documents
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Charles I Of England
CHARLES I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649 ) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England
England
, Scotland , and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. Charles was the second son of King James VI of Scotland , but after his father inherited the English throne in 1603, he moved to England, where he spent much of the rest of his life. He became heir apparent to the English, Irish, and Scottish thrones on the death of his elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales , in 1612. An unsuccessful and unpopular attempt to marry him to the Spanish Habsburg princess Maria Anna culminated in an eight-month visit to Spain in 1623 that demonstrated the futility of the marriage negotiations. Two years later, he married the Bourbon princess Henrietta Maria of France instead
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Tidal River
A TIDAL RIVER is a river whose flow and level are influenced by tides . A section of a larger river affected by the tides is a tidal reach , although it may sometimes be considered a tidal river if it has been given a separate name. The Brisbane River
River
, which flows into the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
from the east coast of Australia
Australia
, is also a tidal river. Generally, tidal rivers are short rivers with relatively low discharge rates but high overall discharge; generally this implies a shallow river with a large coastal mouth. In some cases, high tides impound downstream flowing freshwater, reversing the flow and increasing the water level of the lower section of river, forming large estuaries. High tides can be noticed as far as 100 kilometres (62 mi) upstream. The Coquille River
River
is one such stream where this effect can be noticed
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British Hillforts
HILLFORTS IN BRITAIN refers to the various hillforts within the island of Great Britain. Although the earliest such constructs fitting this description come from the Neolithic British Isles , with a few also dating to later Bronze Age Britain
Bronze Age Britain
, British hillforts were primarily constructed during the British Iron Age
British Iron Age
. Some of these were apparently abandoned in the southern areas that were a part of Roman Britain , although at the same time, those areas of northern Britain that remained free from Roman occupation saw an increase in their construction. Some hillforts were reused in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
, and in some rarer cases, into the Later Medieval period as well. By the early modern period , these had essentially all been abandoned, with many being excavated by archaeologists in the nineteenth century onward
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Ford (crossing)
A FORD is a shallow place with good footing where a river or stream may be crossed by wading, or inside a vehicle getting its wheels wet. A ford is mostly a natural phenomenon, in contrast to a low water crossing , which is an artificial bridge that allows crossing a river or stream when water is low. CONTENTS* 1 Description * 1.1 Watersplash * 2 Location names * 3 Famous battles * 3.1 In fiction * 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links DESCRIPTIONA ford is a much cheaper form of river crossing than a bridge , but it may become impassable after heavy rain or during flood conditions. A ford is therefore normally only suitable for very minor roads (and for paths intended for walkers and horse riders etc.). Most modern fords are usually shallow enough to be crossed by cars and other wheeled or tracked vehicles (a process known as "fording")
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Neolithic
farming , animal husbandry pottery , metallurgy , wheel circular ditches , henges , megaliths Neolithic religion Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
The NEOLITHIC /ˌniːəˈlɪθᵻk/ ( listen ) AGE, ERA, or PERIOD, or NEW STONE AGE, was a period in the development of human technology , beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology , in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC. Traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age
Stone Age
, the Neolithic
Neolithic
followed the terminal Holocene
Holocene
Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
period and commenced with the beginning of farming , which produced the " Neolithic Revolution "
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Cavaliers
CAVALIER (/ˌkævəˈlɪər/ ) was first used by Roundheads as a term of abuse for the wealthier Royalist supporters of King Charles I and his son Charles II of England
Charles II of England
during the English Civil War
English Civil War
, the Interregnum , and the Restoration (1642 – c. 1679). It was later adopted by the Royalists themselves. Although it referred originally to political and social attitudes and behaviour, of which clothing was a very small part, it has subsequently become strongly identified with the fashionable clothing of the court at the time. Prince Rupert , commander of much of Charles I's cavalry, is often considered to be an archetypal Cavalier
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Roman Roads In Britain
Roman roads
Roman roads
in Britain are long roads, mainly designed for military use, created by the Roman Army
Roman Army
during the nearly four centuries (43 – 410 AD) that Britain was a province of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. It is estimated that the Romans constructed and maintained about 2,000 mi (3,200 km) of paved trunk roads (i.e. surfaced roads running between two towns or cities) throughout the province, although most of the known network was complete by AD 180. The primary function of the network was to allow rapid movement of troops and military supplies, but it also provided vital infrastructure for commerce, trade and the transportation of goods. A considerable number of Roman roads
Roman roads
remained in daily use as core trunk roads for centuries after the Romans withdrew from Britain in AD 410
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