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Wood Splitting
Wood
Wood
splitting (riving,[1] cleaving) is an ancient technique used in carpentry to make lumber for making wooden objects, some basket weaving, and to make firewood. Unlike wood sawing, the wood is split along the grain using tools such as a hammer and wedges, splitting maul, cleaving axe, side knife, or froe.Contents1 Woodworking 2 Basket making 3 Firewood 4 Advantages 5 Prevention 6 References 7 External linksWoodworking[edit] In woodworking carpenters use a wooden siding which gets its name, clapboard,[2] from originally being split from logs—the sound of the plank against the log being a clap. This is used in clapboard architecture and for wainscoting
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Shake (shingle)
Wood
Wood
shingles are thin, tapered pieces of wood primarily used to cover roofs and walls of buildings to protect them from the weather. Historically shingles were split from straight grained, knot free bolts of wood. Today shingles are mostly made by being cut which distinguishes them from shakes which are made by being split out of a bolt. Wooden shingle roofs were prevalent in the North American colonies (for example in the Cape-Cod-style house), while in central and southern Europe at the same time, thatch, slate and tile were the prevalent roofing materials. In rural Scandinavia, wood shingle roofs were a common roofing material until the 1950s.[disputed – discuss] Wood
Wood
shingles are susceptible to fire and cost more than other types of shingle so they are not as common today as in the past. Distinctive shingle patterns exist in various regions created by the size, shape, and application method
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Fraxinus Nigra
Fraxinus
Fraxinus
nigra, the black ash, is a species of ash native to much of eastern Canada
Canada
and the northeastern United States, from western Newfoundland west to southeastern Manitoba, and south to Illinois
Illinois
and northern Virginia.[2] Formerly abundant, as of 2014 the species is threatened with near total extirpation throughout its range, as a result of infestation by a parasitic insect known as the emerald ash borer.Contents1 Description 2 Ecology and conservation status 3 Uses 4 Creating basket strips 5 ReferencesDescription[edit]Image of black ash trunk. Tree
Tree
is located in a seasonally wet, riparian habitat near a small-scale stream
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Basket Weaving
Basket
Basket
weaving (also basketry or basket making) is the process of weaving or sewing pliable materials into two- or threedimensional artefacts, such as mats or containers. Craftspeople and artists specialised in making baskets are usually referred to as basket makers and basket weavers. Basketry is made from a variety of fibrous or pliable materials—anything that will bend and form a shape. Examples include pine straw, stems, animal hair, hide, grasses, thread, and fine wooden splints. Indigenous peoples are particularly renowned for their basket-weaving techniques. These baskets may then be traded for goods but may also be used for religious ceremonies. Classified into four types, according to Catherine Erdly:[1]"Coiled" basketry using grasses and rushes "Plaiting" basketry using materials that are wide and braidlike: palms, yucca or New Zealand flax "Twining" basketry using materials from roots and tree bark
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Firewood
Firewood
Firewood
is any wooden material that is gathered and used for fuel. Generally, firewood is not highly processed and is in some sort of recognizable log or branch form, compared to other forms of wood fuel like pellets or chips. Firewood
Firewood
can be seasoned (dry) or unseasoned (fresh/wet). It can be classed as hardwood or softwood. Firewood
Firewood
is a renewable resource. However, demand for this fuel can outpace its ability to regenerate on a local or regional level
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Ski
A ski is a narrow strip of semi-rigid material worn underfoot to glide over snow. Substantially longer than wide and characteristically employed in pairs, skis are attached to ski boots with ski bindings, with either a free, lockable, or partially secured heel
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Viking Ship
Viking ships
Viking ships
were marine vessels of unique structure , built by the Vikings
Vikings
during the Viking Age. The boat-types were quite varied, depending on what the ship was intended for,[1] but they were generally characterized as being slender and flexible boats, with symmetrical ends with true keel. They were clinker built, which is the overlapping of planks riveted together. Some might have had a dragon's head or other circular object protruding from the bow and stern for design, although this is only inferred from historical sources. Viking ships
Viking ships
were not just used for their military prowess but for long-distance trade, exploration and colonization.[2][dubious – discuss] In the literature, Viking ships
Viking ships
are usually seen divided into two broad categories: merchant ships and warships
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Wedge (mechanical Device)
A wedge is a triangular shaped tool, and is a portable inclined plane, and one of the six classical simple machines. It can be used to separate two objects or portions of an object, lift up an object, or hold an object in place. It functions by converting a force applied to its blunt end into forces perpendicular (normal) to its inclined surfaces. The mechanical advantage of a wedge is given by the ratio of the length of its slope to its width.[1][2] Although a short wedge with a wide angle may do a job faster, it requires more force than a long wedge with a narrow angle.Contents1 History 2 Use of a wedge 3 Blades and wedges 4 Examples for holding fast 5 Mechanical advantage 6 See also 7 ReferencesHistory[edit] Flint
Flint
hand axe found in WinchesterPerhaps the first example of a wedge is the hand axe, also see biface and Olorgesailie. Wedges have been around for thousands of years, they were first made of simple stone
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Clog
Clogs are a type of footwear made in part or completely from wood. Clogs are used worldwide and although the form may vary by culture, within a culture the form often remained unchanged for centuries. Traditional clogs remain in use as protective footwear in agriculture and in some factories and mines. Although clogs are sometimes negatively associated with cheap and folkloric footwear of farmers and the working class, some types of clogs are considered fashion wear today, such as Swedish träskor or Japanese geta. Clogs are also used in several different styles of dance. When worn for dancing an important feature is the sound of the clog against the floor
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Batoning
Batoning
Batoning
is the technique of cutting or splitting wood by using a baton-sized stick or mallet to repeatedly strike the spine of a sturdy knife, chisel or blade in order to drive it through wood, similar to how a froe is used.[1][2][3][4][5] The batoning method can be used to make kindling or desired forms such as boards, slats or notches. The practice is most useful for obtaining dry wood from the inside of logs for the purpose of fire making.Contents1 Tools 2 Technique 3 Uses and advantages 4 Hazards 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksTools[edit] Tools used in batoning are: a strong, fixed-blade, preferably full tang knife or machete with a thick spine, and a club-sized length of dense or green wood for striking the knife's spine and tip. Technique[edit] The basic method involves repeatedly striking the spine of the knife to force the middle of the blade into the wood
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Millwork (building Material)
Millwork building materials are historically any woodmill-produced building construction interior-finish, exterior-finish, or decorative components. Stock profiled and patterned millwork building components fabricated by milling at a planing mill can usually be installed with minimal alteration.[1] Today, millwork also encompasses items that are made using alternatives to wood, including synthetics, plastics, and wood-adhesive composites.Contents1 Specifics 2 Historical context 3 Fabrication 4 Uses 5 Types 6 ReferencesSpecifics[edit] Millwork building materials include the ready-made carpentry elements usually installed in any building.[2] Many of the specific features of the space are created using different types of architectural millwork: doors, window casings, and cabinets to name just a few.[1][3] The materials used in millwork items today are most often graded-lumber, code compliant fasteners, various glasses, and other decorative coatings and finishes
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Truss Connector Plate
A truss connector plate is a kind of tie. Truss Plates are light gauge metal plates used to connect prefabricated light frame wood trusses. They are produced by punching light gauge galvanized steel in order to have teeth on one side. The teeth will allow to join different trusses together by being embedded into the lumber using an hydraulic press or a roller. Nail plates are used to connect timber of the same thickness in the same plane. When used on trusses, they are pressed into the side of the timber using special hydraulic tools. As the plate is pressed in, the nails are all "driven" simultaneously and the compression between adjacent nails reduces the tendency to split. A truss connector plate is manufactured from ASTM
ASTM
A653/A653M, A591, A792/A792M, or A167 structural quality steel and is protected with zinc or zinc-aluminum alloy coatings or their stainless steel equivalent
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Pilot Hole
A pilot hole is either a small hole drilled into a material to guide a larger drill to the appropriate location and ease the job of the larger drill, to allow for the insertion of another hole making tool, such as a knockout punch, that will produce the final size hole, or, in wood or plastic, to locate, guide, and provide clearance for a self threading screw to prevent damaging the material or breaking the screw.Contents1 Pilot for large holes 2 Pilot holes for screws 3 References 4 External linksPilot for large holes[edit] A pilot hole may be drilled the full extent of the final hole, or may only be a portion of the final depth. The pilot drill may be a standard twist drill, another type of drill bit appropriate for the material, or, when the primary purpose is precisely locating a hole, may be made with a short, stiff center drill. The pilot hole also reduces the power needed to turn a large drill bit, and reduces the large bit breakage risk
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Log Splitter
A log splitter is a piece of machinery or equipment used for splitting firewood from softwood or hardwood logs that have been pre-cut into sections (rounds), usually by chainsaw or on a saw bench. Many log splitters consist of a hydraulic or electrical rod and piston assembly and these are often rated by the tons of force they can generate. The higher the force rating, the greater the thickness or length of the rounds that can be split
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Split-rail Fence
A split-rail fence or log fence (also known as a zigzag fence, worm fence or snake fence historically due to its meandering layout) is a type of fence constructed in the United States and Canada, and is made out of timber logs, usually split lengthwise into rails and typically used for agricultural or decorative fencing. Such fences require much more timber than other types of fences, and so are generally only common in areas where wood is abundant. However, they are very simple in their construction, and can be assembled with few tools even on hard or rocky ground. They also can be built without using any nails or other hardware; such hardware was often scarce in frontier areas. They are particularly popular in very rocky areas where post hole digging is almost impossible. They can even be partially or wholly disassembled if the fence needs to be moved or the wood becomes more useful for other purposes
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Clapboard (architecture)
Clapboard, also called bevel siding, lap siding, and weatherboard, with regional variation in the definition of these terms, is wooden siding of a building in the form of horizontal boards, often overlapping.Contents1 Definition 2 Types2.1 Riven 2.2 Radially sawn 2.3 Flat-sawn 2.4 Chamferboard 2.5 Finger jointed3 Wood
Wood
species 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDefinition[edit] Clapboard in modern (American English) usage is a word for long, thin boards used to cover walls and (formerly) roofs of buildings.[1] Also historically called clawboards and cloboards.[2] An older meani
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