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Wood Pulp
Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibres from wood, fiber crops, waste paper, or rags. Many kinds of paper are made from wood with nothing else mixed into them. This includes newspaper, magazines and even toilet paper
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Cellulose Fiber
Cellulose
Cellulose
fibers (/ˈsɛljəˌloʊs/)[1] are fibers made with ether or esters of cellulose, which can be obtained from the bark, wood or leaves of plants, or from a plant-based material. Besides cellulose, these fibers are compound of hemicellulose and lignin, and different percentages of these components are responsible for different mechanical properties observed.celluĺose mainly comes from gach The main applications of cellulose fibers are in textile industry, as chemical filter, and fiber-reinforcement composite, due to their similar properties to engineered fibers, being another option for biocomposites and polymer composites. Cellulose
Cellulose
fibers market has been witnessing strong growth over the past few years on account of increasing demand from the textile industry
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Larch
About 10–11; see textLarches are conifers in the genus Larix, of the family Pinaceae (subfamily Laricoideae). Growing from 20 to 45 m (66 to 148 ft) tall,[1] they are native to much of the cooler temperate northern hemisphere, on lowlands in the north and high on mountains further south. Larches are among the dominant plants in the boreal forests of Siberia
Siberia
and Canada. Although they are conifers, larches are deciduous trees that lose their needles in the autumn.Contents1 Description and distribution 2 Species and taxonomy2.1 North American species 2.2 Eurasian species2.2.1 Northern Eurasian species with short bracts 2.2.2 Southern Euroasiatic species with long bracts3 Diseases 4 Uses 5 References5.1 Notes 5.2 Bibliography6 Further reading 7 External linksDescription and distribution[edit] Larches can reach 50–60 m ( Larix
Larix
occidentalis)
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Counter Ion
A counterion (pronounced as two words, i.e. "counter" "ion", and sometimes written as two words) is the ion that accompanies an ionic species in order to maintain electric neutrality. In table salt (NaCl), the sodium cation is the counterion for the chlorine anion and vice versa.Contents1 Interfacial chemistry 2 Solution chemistry 3 Electrochemistry 4 Counterion stability 5 ReferencesInterfacial chemistry[edit] Counterions are the mobile ions in ion exchange polymers and colloids.[1] Ion exchange resins are polymers with a net negative or positive charge. Cation exchange resins consist of an anionic polymer with countercations, typically Na+. The resin has a higher affinity for highly charged countercations, e.g., by Ca2+ in the case of water softening. Complementarily, anion exchange resins are typically provided in the form of chloride, which is a highly mobile couteranion. Counterions are used in phase-transfer catalysis
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Wood
Wood
Wood
is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers that are strong in tension and embedded in a matrix of lignin that resists compression. Wood
Wood
is sometimes defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems of trees,[1] or it is defined more broadly to include the same type of tissue elsewhere such as in the roots of trees or shrubs.[citation needed] In a living tree it performs a support function, enabling woody plants to grow large or to stand up by themselves. It also conveys water and nutrients between the leaves, other growing tissues, and the roots
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Timber
Lumber
Lumber
(American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production. Lumber
Lumber
is mainly used for structural purposes but has many other uses as well. There are two main types of lumber. It may be supplied either rough-sawn, or surfaced on one or more of its faces. Besides pulpwood, rough lumber is the raw material for furniture-making and other items requiring additional cutting and shaping
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Softwood
Softwood
Softwood
is wood from gymnosperm trees such as conifers. The term is opposed to hardwood, which is the wood from angiosperm trees. Softwood trees have needles and exposed seeds, but do not have leaves.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Known softwood trees and uses 3 Applications 4 See also 5 ReferencesCharacteristics[edit] Softwoods are not necessarily softer than hardwoods.[1] In both groups there is an enormous variation in actual wood hardness, with the range in density in hardwoods completely including that of softwoods; some hardwoods (e.g. balsa) are softer than most softwoods, while the hardest hardwoods are much harder than any softwood
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Spruce
About 35; see text.A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea
Picea
/paɪˈsiːə/,[1] a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga) regions of the Earth. Spruces are large trees, from about 20–60 m (about 60–200 ft) tall when mature, and can be distinguished by their whorled branches and conical form. The needles, or leaves, of spruces are attached singly to the branches in a spiral fashion, each needle on a small, peg-like structure. The needles are shed when 4–10 years old, leaving the branches rough with the retained pegs (an easy means of distinguishing them from other similar genera, where the branches are fairly smooth). Spruces are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (moth and butterfly) species, such as the eastern spruce budworm
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Pine
See Pinus classification
Pinus classification
for complete taxonomy to species level. See list of pines by region for list of species by geographic distribution.Range of PinusA pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus, /ˈpiːnuːs/,[1] of the family Pinaceae
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Fir
See textFirs (Abies) are a genus of 48–56 species of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Pinaceae. They are found through much of North and Central America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa, occurring in mountains over most of the range. Firs are most closely related to the genus Cedrus
Cedrus
(cedar). Douglas firs are not true firs, being of the genus Pseudotsuga. They are large trees, reaching heights of 10–80 m (33–262 ft) tall and trunk diameters of 0.5–4 m (1 ft 8 in–13 ft 1 in) when mature
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Hardwood
Hardwood
Hardwood
is wood from dicot trees. These are usually found in broad-leaved temperate and tropical forests. In temperate and boreal latitudes they are mostly deciduous, but in tropics and subtropics mostly evergreen. Hardwood
Hardwood
contrasts with softwood (which is from gymnosperm trees).Contents1 Characteristics 2 Applications2.1 Cooking3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksCharacteristics[edit]SEM images showing the presence of pores in hardwoods (oak, top) and absence in softwoods (pine, bottom)Hardwoods are produced by angiosperm trees that reproduce by flowers, and have broad leaves. Many species are deciduous
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Calcium Bisulfite
Calcium bisulfite (calcium bisulphite) is an inorganic compound which is the salt of a calcium cation and a bisulfite anion. It may be prepared by reacting lime with an excess of sulfurous acid[citation needed], essentially a mixture of sulfur dioxide and water. It is a weak reducing agent, as is sulfur dioxide, sulfites, and any other compound containing sulfur in the +4 oxidation state. As a food additive it is used as a preservative under the E number E227
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Eucalyptus
Aromadendron Andrews ex Steud. Eucalypton St.-Lag. Eudesmia R.Br. Symphyomyrtus Schauer Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus
/ˌjuːkəˈlɪptəs/[2] L'Héritier 1789[3] (plural eucalypti, eucalyptuses or eucalypts) is a diverse genus of flowering trees and shrubs (including a distinct group with a multiple-stem mallee growth habit) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. Members of the genus dominate the tree flora of Australia, and include Eucalyptus regnans, the tallest known flowering plant on Earth.[4] There are more than 700 species of eucalyptus and most are native to Australia; a very small number are found in adjacent areas of New Guinea
New Guinea
and Indonesia. One species, Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus
deglupta, ranges as far north as the Philippines. Of the 15 species found outside Australia, just nine are exclusively non-Australian
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Aspen
Aspen
Aspen
is a common name for certain tree species; some, but not all, are classified by botanists in the section Populus, of the Populus genus.[1]Contents1 Species 2 Habitat and longevity 3 Image gallery 4 Uses 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksSpecies[edit] These species are called aspens: Populus
Populus
adenopoda – Chinese aspen (China, south of P. tremula) Populus
Populus
davidiana – Korean aspen (Eastern Asia) Populus
Populus
grandidentata – Bigtooth aspen (eastern North America, south of P
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Hemicellulose
A hemicellulose (also known as polyose) is any of several heteropolymers (matrix polysaccharides), such as arabinoxylans, present along with cellulose in almost all plant cell walls.[1] While cellulose is crystalline, strong, and resistant to hydrolysis, hemicellulose has a random, amorphous structure with little strength. It is easily hydrolyzed by dilute acid or base as well as a myriad of hemicellulase enzymes.Most common molecular motif of hemicelluloseContents1 Composition 2 Structural comparison to cellulose 3 Native structure 4 Biosynthesis 5 Applications 6 Functions 7 From trees 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksComposition[edit] Hemicelluloses include xylan, glucuronoxylan, arabinoxylan, glucomannan, and xyloglucan. These polysaccharides contain many different sugar monomers. In contrast, cellulose contains only anhydrous glucose. For instance, besides glucose, sugar monomers in hemicellulose can include xylose, mannose, galactose, rhamnose, and arabinose
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Tonne
The tonne (/tʌn/ ( listen)) (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;[1][2][3][4] or one megagram (Mg); it is equivalent to approximately 2,204.6 pounds,[5] 1.102 short tons (US) or 0.984 long tons (imperial). Although not part of the SI, the tonne is accepted for use with SI units and prefixes by the International Committee for Weights and Measures.[6]Contents1 Symbol and abbreviations 2 Origin and spelling 3 Conversions 4 Derived units 5 Alternative usage5.1 Use of mass as proxy for energy 5.2 Unit of force6 See also 7 Notes and references 8 External linksSymbol and abbreviations[edit] The SI symbol for the tonne is "t", adopted at the same time as the unit in 1879.[2] Its use is also official for the metric ton in the United States, having been adopted by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology.[7] It
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