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Winston Churchill (1620–1688)
Sir Winston Churchill, MP FRS (18 April 1620 – 26 March 1688), known as the Cavalier
Cavalier
Colonel, was a British soldier, nobleman, historian, and politician.[2] He was the father of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, as well as an ancestor of his 20th-century namesake, Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill. Life and career[edit] Churchill was the son of Sir John Churchill of Dorset, a lawyer and politician, and his wife Sarah Winston, daughter of Sir Henry Winston. Churchill was educated at St John's College, Oxford, but he left university without taking a degree. The main reason of it was the beginning of the Civil War. Churchill was a fervent Royalist throughout his life
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British People
 United Kingdom 57,678,000[2] (British citizens of any race or ethnicity) British Overseas Territories 247,899[3] United States 40,234,652-72,065,000 1 678,000 2[4][5] Canada 12,134,745 1 609,000 4[6] Australia 9,031,100 1[7] 1,300,000 4[8] Hong Kong 3,400,000 3 4[9] New Zealand 2,425,278 1 217,000 4[10] South Africa 1,600,000 750,000 4[8][11] Chile 700,000 1[12] France 400,000 4[13] Ireland 291,000 4[8] Argentina 250,000 1[14] United Arab Emirates 240,000 2[15] Spain 236,669 4[16][17] Peru 150,000 1[18] Germany 115,000 2[19] Pakistan 79,447 4[20] Cyprus 59,000 2[19] Thailand 51,000 2[21]  Switzerland 45,000 2[22] Netherlands 44,000 2[22] Israel 44,000[23] Portugal 41,000 2[22] Sweden 39,989 2 China 36,0
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History Of The Royal Marines
The history of the Royal Marines
Royal Marines
began on 28 October 1664 with the formation of the Duke of York and Albany's Maritime Regiment
Regiment
of Foot soon becoming known as the Admiral's Regiment. During the War of the Spanish Succession the most historic achievement of the Marines was the capture of the mole during the assault on Gibraltar
Gibraltar
(sailors of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
captured the Rock itself) in 1704. On 5 April 1755, His Majesty's Marine Forces, fifty Companies in three Divisions, headquartered at Portsmouth, Chatham and Plymouth, were formed by Order of Council under Admiralty
Admiralty
control. The Royal Marine Artillery
Artillery
was formed as an establishment within the British Royal Marines
Royal Marines
in 1804 to man the artillery in bomb vessels
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Battle Of Solebay
Upper RhineSinsheim Entzheim Mulhouse Turckheim Salzbach Altenheim Konzer Brücke Trier Philippsburg Kochersberg Freiburg Rheinfelden GengenbachFranche-ComtéBesançonBrandenburgFehrbellinPyreneesMaureillas EspouillesAmericasMartinique AcadiaNaval battlesSolebay Schooneveld Texel Stromboli Augusta Palermo Tobagov t eThird Anglo-Dutch WarSolebay Schooneveld TexelThe naval Battle of Solebay
Battle of Solebay
took place on 28 May Old Style, 7 June New Style[1][2] 1672 and was the first naval battle of the Third Anglo-Dutch War
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Queen's College, Oxford
The Queen's College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford, England. The college was founded in 1341 by Robert de Eglesfield (d'Eglesfield) in honour of Queen Philippa of Hainault (wife of King Edward III of England). The college is distinguished by its predominantly neoclassical architecture, which includes buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren
Sir Christopher Wren
and Nicholas Hawksmoor. In 2015, the college had an endowment of £265 million,[2] making it the fifth wealthiest college (after St
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1st The Royal Dragoons
The Royal Dragoons (1st Dragoons) was a mounted infantry and later a heavy cavalry regiment of the British Army. The regiment was formed in 1661 as the Tangier Horse. It served for three centuries and was in action during the First and the Second World Wars
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Admiral
Admiral
Admiral
is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. It is usually abbreviated to "Adm" or "ADM". The rank is generally thought to have originated in Sicily from a conflation of Arabic: أمير البحر‎, amīr al-baḥr, "commander of the sea", with Latin
Latin
admirabilis[1] ("admirable") or admiratus ("admired"), although alternative etymologies derive the word directly from Latin, or from the Turkish military and naval rank miralay. The French version - "Amiral" without the additional "d" - tends to add evidence for the Arab origin. In the Commonwealth and the U.S., a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general in the army, and is above vice admiral and below admiral of the fleet (or fleet admiral)
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Royal Navy
The Royal Navy
Navy
(RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War
Hundred Years War
against the Kingdom of France. The modern Royal Navy
Navy
traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service. From the middle decades of the 17th century, and through the 18th century, the Royal Navy
Navy
vied with the Dutch Navy
Navy
and later with the French Navy
Navy
for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy
Navy
during the Second World War
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General
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.[1] The term "general" is used in two ways: as the generic title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank. It originates in the 16th century, as a shortening of captain general, which rank was taken from Middle French capitaine général. The adjective general had been affixed to officer designations since the late medieval period to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction. Today, the title of "General" is known in some countries as a four-star rank. However different countries use different systems of stars for senior ranks
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British Army
The British Army
Army
is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2017, the British Army comprises just over 80,000 trained regular (full-time) personnel and just over 26,500 trained reserve (part-time) personnel.[4] Since April 2013, Ministry of Defence publications have not reported the entire strength of the Regular Reserve; instead, only Regular Reserves serving under the fixed-term reserve contracts have been counted.[5] The modern British Army
Army
traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army
Army
that was created during the Restoration in 1660
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Montagu Venables-Bertie, 2nd Earl Of Abingdon
Montagu Venables-Bertie, 2nd Earl of Abingdon
Earl of Abingdon
PC (4 February 1673 – 16 June 1743), styled Hon. Montagu Bertie until 1682 and Lord Norreys from 1682 to 1699, was an English nobleman.Contents1 Career 2 Family 3 Notes 4 ReferencesCareer[edit] Montagu was the eldest son of James Bertie, 1st Earl of Abingdon
James Bertie, 1st Earl of Abingdon
and Eleanora Lee. Though young not yet matriculated, he was chosen captain of the company of militia foot raised from Christ Church during the Monmouth Rebellion.[1] Through the influence of his father, he was made a freeman and common councilman of Woodstock in 1686, and a freeman of Oxford
Oxford
in 1687. On 22 September 1687, he married Anne (d. 28 April 1715), the daughter and coheiress of Peter Venables (d. 1679), baron of Kinderton.[a] He shortly afterwards assumed the additional surname of Venables
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James II Of England
James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701[1]) was King of England
King of England
and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland
King of Scotland
as James VII,[3] from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. He was the last Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland. The second surviving son of Charles I, he ascended the throne upon the death of his brother, Charles II. Members of Britain's Protestant political elite increasingly suspected him of being pro-French and pro-Catholic and of having designs on becoming an absolute monarch. When he produced a Catholic heir, a son called James Francis Edward, leading nobles called on his Protestant son-in-law and nephew William III of Orange to land an invasion army from the Dutch Republic, which he did in the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
of 1688
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Charles Churchill (British Army Officer, Born 1656)
Monmouth RebellionBattle of SedgemoorWilliamite War in IrelandSiege of CorkNine Years' WarBattle of Steenkerque Battle of LandenWar of the Spanish SuccessionBattle of Blenheim Battle of RamilliesOther work Lieutenant of the Tower of London Governor of Guernsey Member of ParliamentGeneral Charles Churchill (2 February 1656 – 29 December 1714) was an English politician and army officer who served during the War of the Spanish Succession. He was a younger brother of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. His career was closely connected with his brother's and along with Marlborough's Irish Chief of Staff William Cadogan was one of his closest advisors.Contents1 Life 2 Family 3 Notes 4 ReferencesLife[edit] Churchill was the son of Winston Churchill (1620-1688) and Elizabeth Drake
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George Villiers, 1st Duke Of Buckingham
George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, KG (/ˈvɪlərz/;[1][2] 28 August 1592 – 23 August 1628), was an English courtier, statesman, and patron of the arts. He was a favourite and possibly also a lover of King James I of England.[3][4] Despite a patchy political and military record, Buckingham remained at the height of royal favour for the first three years of the reign of King Charles I, when a disgruntled army officer assassinated him.Contents1 Early life 2 Ascent at court 3 Relationship with James I 4 Influence under James I 5 Charles I, the Lord Admiral and foreign affairs 6 Assassination 7 Self-promotion through the arts 8 Marriage and children 9 Legacy 10 Fictional appearances 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External linksEarly life[edit] Main article: Villiers family George Villiers was born in Brooksby, Leicestershire, on 28 August 1592, the son of the minor gentleman Sir George Villiers (1550–1606)
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Leslie Stephen
Sir Leslie Stephen
Leslie Stephen
KCB (28 November 1832 – 22 February 1904) was an English author, critic, historian, biographer, and mountaineer, and father of Virginia Woolf
Virginia Woolf
and Vanessa Bell.Contents1 Life1.1 Marriage1.1.1 (1) Harriet (Minny) Thackeray 1867–1875 1.1.2 (2) Julia Duckworth
Julia Duckworth
1878–18951.2 Career 1.3 Mountaineering2 List of selected publications 3 Death 4 Family tree 5 References 6 Bibliography6.1 Anne Thackeray
Anne Thackeray
Ritchie7 External links7.1 External imagesLife[edit] Sir Leslie Stephen
Leslie Stephen
came from a distinguished intellectual family,[1] and was born at 14 (later renumbered 42) Hyde Park Gate, Kensington
Kensington
in London, the son of Sir James Stephen and (Lady) Jane Catherine (née Venn) Stephen
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Dictionary Of National Biography
The Dictionary of National Biography
Biography
(DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
Biography
(ODNB) was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and online, with 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives.Contents1 First series 2 Supplements and revisions 3 Concise dictionary 4 Oxford Dictionary of National Biography 5 First series contents 6 See also 7 Notes 8 External linksFirst series[edit] Hoping to emulate national biographical collections published elsewhere in Europe, such as the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (1875), in 1882 the publisher George Smith (1824–1901), of Smith, Elder & Co., planned a universal dictionary that would include biographical entries on individuals from world history. He approached Leslie Stephen, then editor of the Cornhill Magazine, owned by Smith, to become the editor
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