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William The Silent
William I, Prince of Orange
Prince of Orange
(24 April 1533 – 10 July 1584), also widely known as William the Silent
William the Silent
or William the Taciturn (translated from Dutch: Willem de Zwijger),[1][2] or more commonly known as William of Orange (Dutch: Willem van Oranje), was the main leader of the Dutch revolt
Dutch revolt
against the Spanish Habsburgs
Habsburgs
that set off the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1581. He was born in the House of Nassau
House of Nassau
as Count of Nassau-Dillenburg. He became Prince of Orange
Prince of Orange
in 1544 and is thereby the founder of the branch House of Orange-Nassau
House of Orange-Nassau
and the ancestor of the monarchy of the Netherlands. Within the Netherlands he is also known as Father of the Fatherland
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Governors Of The Habsburg Netherlands
The Governor (Dutch: Landvoogd) or Governor-General (Gouverneur-Generaal) ruled the Habsburg Netherlands
Habsburg Netherlands
as a representative of the Dukes of Burgundy (until 1506), the Kings of Castile (1506-1598; 1621-1706), and the Archdukes of Austria (1716-1794). They were normally based in Brussels. Frequently, the governor-general was a close relative of the Spanish or Austrian monarch, though at other times Spanish or German noblemen filled the role
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Lutheran Church
Lutheranism
Lutheranism
is a major branch of Protestant
Protestant
Christianity
Christianity
which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther
Martin Luther
(1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
in the German-speaking territories of the Holy Roman Empire
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Adriaen Thomasz Key
Adriaen Thomasz Key
Adriaen Thomasz Key
(c. 1544, Antwerp
Antwerp
– c. 1599, Antwerp), was a Flemish Renaissance portrait painter. Biography[edit] Little is known of his life. According to the Rijksmuseum, he was a pupil of his (distant) relative Willem Key.[1] According to the RKD
RKD
he became a vrijmeester, or master in the Antwerp
Antwerp
Guild of St. Luke
Guild of St. Luke
in 1568.[2] References[edit]^ Adriaen Thomasz Key
Adriaen Thomasz Key
at the Rijksmuseum ^ Adriaen Thomasz Key
Adriaen Thomasz Key
in the RKDExternal links[edit] Media related to Adriaen Thomasz
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Nobility
Nobility
Nobility
is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary. The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be largely honorary (e.g., precedence), and vary by country and era
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Habsburgs
The House of Habsburg
Habsburg
(/ˈhæpsbɜːrɡ/; German pronunciation: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk], traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria[1] was one of the most influential and outstanding royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs between 1438 and 1740. The house also produced emperors and kings of the Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
( Jure uxoris King), Kingdom of Germany, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Croatia, Kingdom of Illyria, Second Mexican Empire, Kingdom of Ireland
Kingdom of Ireland
( Jure uxoris King), Kingdom of Portugal, and Kingdom of Spain, as well as rulers of several Dutch and Italian principalities.[dubious – discuss] From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches
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Margaret Of Parma
Margaret of Parma
Parma
(Italian: Margherita di Parma; 28 December 1522 – 18 January 1586) was Governor of the Netherlands from 1559 to 1567[1] and from 1578 to 1582. She was the illegitimate daughter of the then 22-year-old Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Johanna Maria van der Gheynst. She was a Duchess of Florence
Florence
and a Duchess of Parma
Parma
and Piacenza
Piacenza
by marriage.Contents1 Biography 2 Issue 3 Ancestry 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesBiography[edit]Engraving of Margaret of ParmaMargaret of Parma
Parma
by Antonio Moro, circa 1562Margaret's mother, Johanna Maria van der Gheynst, a servant of Charles de Lalaing, Seigneur de Montigny, was a Fleming
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Outlaw
In historical legal systems, an outlaw is declared as outside the protection of the law. In pre-modern societies, the criminal is withdrawn all legal protection, so that anyone is legally empowered to persecute or kill them. Outlawry was thus one of the harshest penalties in the legal system. In early Germanic law, the death penalty is conspicuously absent, and outlawing is the most extreme punishment, presumably amounting to a death sentence in practice. The concept is known from Roman law, as the status of homo sacer, and persisted throughout the Middle Ages. In the common law of England, a "Writ of Outlawry" made the pronouncement Caput lupinum ("Let his be a wolf's head", literally "May he bear a wolfish head") with respect to its subject, using "head" to refer to the entire person (cf
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Hesse
Hesse
Hesse
(/ˈhɛsə/)[4] or Hessia (German: Hessen [ˈhɛsn̩], Hessian dialect: Hesse
Hesse
[ˈhɛzə]) is a federal state (Land) of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants. The state capital is Wiesbaden; the largest city is Frankfurt
Frankfurt
am Main. Until the unification of Germany, the territory of Hesse
Hesse
was occupied by the Grand Duchy of Hesse, the Duchy of Nassau, the free city of Frankfurt and the Electorate of Hesse, known also as Hesse-Cassel. Due to divisions after World War II, the modern federal state does not cover the entire cultural region of Hesse, which includes both the State of Hesse
Hesse
and the area known as Rhenish Hesse
Rhenish Hesse
(Rheinhessen) in the neighbouring state of Rhineland-Palatinate. The English name "Hesse" originates in the Hessian dialects
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Nassau (duchy)
The Duchy of Nassau
Duchy of Nassau
(German: Herzogtum Nassau), or simply Nassau, was an independent state between 1806 and 1866, located in what is now the German states of Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
and Hesse. It was a member of the Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine
and later of the German Confederation. Its ruling dynasty, now extinct, was the House of Nassau. The duchy was named for its historical core city, Nassau, although Wiesbaden, not Nassau, was its capital. In 1865, it had 465,636 inhabitants. After being occupied and annexed into the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
in 1866, it was succeeded by the Province of Hesse-Nassau
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Spanish Netherlands
Spanish Netherlands
Netherlands
(Spanish: Países Bajos españoles; Dutch: Spaanse Nederlanden; French: Pays-Bas espagnols, German: Spanische Niederlande) was the collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held in personal union by the Spanish Crown (also called Habsburg Spain) from 1556 to 1714. This region comprised most of modern Belgium
Belgium
and Luxembourg, as well as parts of northern France, part of southern Netherlands, and western Germany. The capital was Brussels. The Imperial fiefs of the former Burgundian Netherlands
Netherlands
had been inherited by the Austrian House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
from the extinct House of Valois-Burgundy upon the death of Mary of Burgundy
Mary of Burgundy
in 1482
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Agnatic
Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side[1] or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage. It generally involves the inheritance of property, rights, names or titles by persons related through male kin. A patriline ("father line") is a person's father, and additional ancestors, as traced only through males.Contents1 In the Bible 2 Agnatic succession 3 Salic Law 4 Genetic genealogy 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksIn the Bible[edit] In the Bible, family and tribal membership appears to be transmitted through the father. For example, a person is considered to be a priest or Levite if his father is a priest or Levite, and the members of all the twelve tribes are called Israelites because their father is Israel (Jacob)
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Germany
Coordinates: 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a]FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom"Anthem: "Deutschlandlied" (third verse only)[b] "Song of Germany"Location of  Germany  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Location of
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Emperor Charles V
Charles V (Spanish: Carlos; German: Karl; Italian: Carlo; Latin: Carolus; Dutch: Karel; French: Charles, [a] 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
as Charles I from 1516 and the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
as Charles V from 1519, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy
Duchy of Burgundy
from 1506. He voluntarily stepped down from these and other positions by a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556. Through inheritance, he brought together under his rule extensive territories in western, central, and southern Europe, and the Spanish viceroyalties in the Americas and Asia
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Brussels
Brussels
Brussels
(French: Bruxelles, [bʁysɛl] ( listen); Dutch: Brussel, [ˈbrɵsəl] ( listen)), officially the Brussels-Capital Region[6][7] (French: Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels
Brussels
Hoofdstedelijk Gewest),[8] is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.[9] The Brussels-Capital Region
Brussels-Capital Region
is located in the central portion of the country and is a part of both the French Community of Belgium[10] and the Flemish Community,[11] but is separate from the region of Flanders
Flanders
(in which it forms an enclave) or Wallonia.[12][13] Compared to most regions in Europe, Brussels
Brussels
has a relatively small territory, with an area of 161 km2 (62 sq mi)
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