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William The Conqueror
William I[a] (c. 1028[1] – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
and sometimes William the Bastard,[2][b] was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. A descendant of Rollo, he was Duke
Duke
of Normandy
Normandy
(as William II) from 1035 onward. After a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy
Normandy
was secure, and he launched the Norman conquest of England
Norman conquest of England
six years later. The rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands and by difficulties with his eldest son. William was the son of the unmarried Robert I, Duke
Duke
of Normandy, by Robert's mistress Herleva
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Danes (Germanic Tribe)
The Danes
Danes
were a North Germanic tribe
North Germanic tribe
inhabiting southern Scandinavia, including the area now comprising Denmark
Denmark
proper, during the Nordic Iron Age and the Viking Age. They founded what became the Kingdom of Denmark. The name of their realm is believed to mean "Danish March", viz
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Dynasty
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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First Cousin Once Removed
Commonly, "cousin" refers to a "first cousin" or equivalently "full cousin", people whose most recent common ancestor is a grandparent.[1] A first cousin used to be known as a cousin-german, though this term is rarely used today.[2] More generally, cousin is a type of familial relationship in which people with a known common ancestor are both two or more generations away from their most recent common ancestor
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Maine (province)
Maine
Maine
[mɛːn] is one of the traditional provinces of France (not to be confused with La Maine, the river). It corresponds to the former County of Maine, whose capital was also the city of Le Mans. The area, now divided into the departments of Sarthe
Sarthe
and Mayenne, counts about 857,000 inhabitants.Contents1 History1.1 French Revolution 1.2 Modern times2 Gallery 3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External linksHistory[edit] In the 8th and 9th centuries there existed a Duchy of Cénomannie (ducatus Cenomannicus), which several of the Carolingian kings used as an appanage. This duchy was a march that may have included several counties including Maine, and extended into Lower Normandy, all the way to the Seine. In 748, Pepin the Short, then Mayor of the Palace and thus the most powerful man in Francia after the king, gave this duchy to his half-brother Grifo
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County Of Flanders
Comté de Flandre (fr)French fiefdom862–1794FlagCoat of arms County
County
of Flanders, 1350, in relation to the Low Countries
Low Countries
and the Holy Roman Empire
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Alfred Aetheling
Ælfred Æþeling (English: Alfred the Noble) (c. 1005 – died 1036) was one of the eight sons of the English king Æthelred the Unready. He and his brother Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
were sons of Ethelred's second wife Emma of Normandy.[1] King Canute became their stepfather when he married Aethelred's widow. Alfred and his brother were caught in the power struggles at the start and end of Canute's reign.Contents1 Siege of London 2 Return to England 3 Modern era 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksSiege of London[edit] In 1013 during the siege of London
London
by the Danes, Aethelred and his family took refuge in Normandy. Aethelred regained the throne in 1014 and died in 1016. England was conquered by Canute of Denmark
Denmark
later that year, and Alfred and Edward returned to the court of their uncle, Duke Robert of Normandy
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Duke
A duke (male) (British English: /djuːk/[1] or American English: /duːk/[2]) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of the nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch. The title comes from French duc, itself from the Latin dux, 'leader', a term used in republican Rome to refer to a military commander without an official rank (particularly one of Germanic or Celtic origin), and later coming to mean the leading military commander of a province. The title dux survived in the Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
where it was used in several contexts signifying a rank equivalent to a captain or general. Later on, in the 11th century, the title Megas Doux
Megas Doux
was introduced for the post of commander-in-chief of the entire navy. During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the title (as Herzog) signified first among the Germanic monarchies
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Illegitimate
Legitimacy, in traditional Western common law, is the status of a child born to parents who are legally married to each other, and of a child conceived before the parents obtain a legal divorce. Conversely, illegitimacy (or bastardy) has been the status of a child born outside marriage, such a child being known as a bastard, or love child, when such a distinction has been made from other children. Depending on local legislation, legitimacy can affect a child's rights of inheritance to the putative father's estate and the child's right to bear the father's surname or hereditary title
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Viking
Vikings
Vikings
(Old English: wicing—"pirate",[1] Danish and Bokmål: vikinger; Swedish and Nynorsk: vikingar; Icelandic: víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.[2][3] The term is also commonly extended in modern English and other vernaculars to the inhabitants of Viking home communities during what has become known as the Viking Age
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Charles The Simple
Charles III (17 September 879 – 7 October 929), called the Simple or the Straightforward (from the Latin
Latin
Carolus Simplex),[a] was the King of West Francia
West Francia
from 898 until 922 and the King of Lotharingia
King of Lotharingia
from 911 until 919–23
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Circa
Circa
Circa
(from Latin, meaning 'around, about'), usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.[1] Circa
Circa
is widely used in historical writing when the dates of events are not accurately known. When used in date ranges, circa is applied before each approximate date, while dates without circa immediately preceding them are generally assumed to be known with certainty
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Rouen
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Rouen
Rouen
(French pronunciation: ​[ʁwɑ̃]; Frankish: Rodomo; Latin: Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine
Seine
in the north of France. It is the capital of the region of Normandy. Formerly one of the largest and most prosperous cities of medieval Europe, Rouen
Rouen
was the seat of the Exchequer
Exchequer
of Normandy
Normandy
during the Middle Ages
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Æthelred The Unready
Æthelred II (Old English: Æþelræd, pronounced [æðelræːd];[1] c. 966 – 23 April 1016), known as the Unready, was King of the English
King of the English
from 978 to 1013 and again from 1014 until his death. His epithet does not derive from the modern word "unready", but rather from the Old English
Old English
unræd (meaning "poorly advised"); it is a pun on his name, which means "well advised". Æthelred was the son of King Edgar and Queen Ælfthryth. He came to the throne at about the age of 12, following the assassination of his older half-brother, Edward the Martyr. His brother's murder was carried out by supporters of his own claim to the throne, although he was too young to have any personal involvement. The chief problem of Æthelred's reign was conflict with the Danes. After several decades of relative peace, Danish raids on English territory began again in earnest in the 980s
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Harthacnut
Harthacnut
Harthacnut
(Danish: Hardeknud;[2] "Tough-knot";[3] c. 1018 – 8 June 1042), sometimes referred to as Canute III, was King of Denmark from 1035 to 1042 and King of England
King of England
from 1040 to 1042. He was the son of King Cnut the Great
Cnut the Great
(who ruled Denmark, Norway, and England) and Emma of Normandy. When Cnut died in 1035, Harthacnut struggled to retain his father's possessions. Magnus I took control of Norway, but Harthacnut
Harthacnut
succeeded as King of Denmark
King of Denmark
and became King of England in 1040 after the death of his half-brother Harold Harefoot. Harthacnut
Harthacnut
died suddenly in 1042 and was succeeded by Magnus in Denmark
Denmark
and Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
in England
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Harold Harefoot
Harold I (c. 1016 – 17 March 1040), also known as Harold Harefoot, was King of England
King of England
from 1035 to 1040. Harold's nickname "Harefoot" is first recorded as "Harefoh" or "Harefah" in the twelfth century in the history of Ely Abbey, and according to late medieval chroniclers it meant that he was fleet of foot.[1] The son of Cnut the Great
Cnut the Great
and Ælfgifu of Northampton, Harold was elected regent of England, following the death of his father in 1035. He was initially ruling England
England
in place of his brother Harthacnut, who was stuck in Denmark due to a rebellion in Norway, which had ousted their brother Svein. Although Harold had wished to be crowned king since 1035, Æthelnoth, Archbishop of Canterbury, refused to do so. It was not until 1037 that Harold, supported by earl Leofric and many others, was officially proclaimed king
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