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William Douglas-Hamilton, Duke Of Hamilton
William Douglas-Hamilton, Duke of Hamilton, KG, PC (24 December 1634 – 18 April 1694), was a Scottish nobleman and politician.[1] Born Lord William Douglas
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Grace (style)
His Grace or Her Grace is a style used for various high-ranking personages. It was the style used to address Kings of England until Henry VIII[1] and the King or Queen of Scots up to the Act of Union of 1707, which united the Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
and the Kingdom of England. Today, the style is used when referring to non-royal dukes and duchesses, and archbishops, in the United Kingdom. For example, His Grace The Duke of Devonshire
Duke of Devonshire
in the United Kingdom, or His Grace The Lord Archbishop
Archbishop
of Canterbury; or Your Grace in spoken or written address
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Charles II Of England
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685)[c] was king of England, Scotland and Ireland. He was king of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, and king of England, Scotland and Ireland from the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 until his death. Charles II's father, Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. Although the Parliament of Scotland
Parliament of Scotland
proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, and the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, and Charles fled to mainland Europe. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland, and Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands
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Second English Civil War
The Second English Civil War
English Civil War
(1648–1649) was the second of three wars known collectively as the English Civil War
English Civil War
(or Wars), which refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place betwe
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William Hamilton, 2nd Duke Of Hamilton
William Hamilton, 2nd Duke of Hamilton
Duke of Hamilton
KG (14 December 1616 – 12 September 1651) was a Scottish nobleman who supported both Royalist and Presbyterian causes during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.Contents1 Life 2 Family 3 In literature 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksLife[edit] Hamilton was born at
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Battle Of Worcester
Decisive Parliamentarian victoryEscape of Charles II End of the English Civil WarBelligerents Parliamentarians RoyalistsCommanders and leaders Oliver Cromwell Charles IIStrength31,000 less than 16,000Casualties and losses200 3,000 killed, more than 10,000 prisonersv t eThird English Civil WarDunbar Inverkeithing Warrington
Warrington
Bridge Wigan Lane Upton Worcesterv t e
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Restoration (Scotland)
The Restoration was the return of the monarchy to Scotland in 1660 after the period of the Commonwealth, and the subsequent three decades of Scottish history
Scottish history
until the Revolution and Convention of Estates of 1689. It was part of a wider Restoration in the British Isles that included the return of the Stuart dynasty
Stuart dynasty
to the thrones of England and Ireland in the person of Charles II. As military commander of the Commonwealth's largest armed force, George Monck, governor-general in Scotland, was instrumental in the restoration of Charles II, who was proclaimed king in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
on 14 May 1660
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Suo Jure
Suo jure is a Latin
Latin
phrase, used in English to mean "in his/her own right". It is commonly encountered in the context of titles of nobility or honorary titles, e.g
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John Maitland, 1st Duke Of Lauderdale
John Maitland, 1st Duke
Duke
and 2nd Earl
Earl
of Lauderdale, 3rd Lord Thirlestane KG PC (24 May 1616, Lethington, East Lothian
East Lothian
– 24 August 1682), was a Scottish politician, and leader within the Cabal Ministry.Contents1 Background 2 Covenanter 3 Privy Councillor in two kingdoms 4 Second English Civil War
English Civil War
and the Worcester Campaign 5 Interregnum 6 Restoration 7 King's councillor 8 The Cabal Ministry 9 Resignation 10 Personal life 11 See also 12 Notes 13 ReferencesBackground[edit] Maitland was a member of an ancient family of both Berwickshire
Berwickshire
and East Lothian, the eldest surviving son of John Maitland, 2nd Lord Maitland of Thirlestane (d
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Presbyterian
Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
is a part of the Reformed tradition
Reformed tradition
within Protestantism
Protestantism
which traces its origins to the British Isles, particularly Scotland. Presbyterian churches derive their name from the presbyterian form of church government, which is governed by representative assemblies of elders. A great number of Reformed churches
Reformed churches
are organized this way, but the word Presbyterian, when capitalized, is often applied uniquely to churches that trace their roots to the Scottish and English Presbyterians, as well as several English dissenter groups that formed during the English Civil War.[2] Presbyterian theology typically emphasizes the sovereignty of God, the authority of the Scriptures, and the necessity of grace through faith in Christ
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Hamilton Palace
Hamilton Palace
Hamilton Palace
was a large country house located north-east of Hamilton in Lanarkshire, Scotland. The former seat of the Dukes of Hamilton, it was built in 1695 and subsequently much enlarged. Widely acknowledged as having been one of the grandest houses in Britain, the palace was demolished in 1927, due to the prohibitive cost of upkeep and the subsidence caused by nearby coal mines.Contents1 The Palace 2 Châtelherault 3 Decline and demolition 4 The site today 5 References 6 External linksThe Palace[edit]Hamilton Palace, 1916.Built on the site of a 13th-century tower house, the south front of Hamilton Palace
Hamilton Palace
was erected in 1695 in the Palladian
Palladian
style, with a huge Corinthian pedimented frontispiece, by architect James Smith for William, 3rd Duke of Hamilton
Duke of Hamilton
and his wife Duchess Anne
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London
London
London
(/ˈlʌndən/ ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city of England
England
and the United Kingdom.[7][8] Standing on the River Thames
River Thames
in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium.[9] London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries
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James II Of England
James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701[1]) was King of England
King of England
and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland
King of Scotland
as James VII,[3] from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. He was the last Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland. The second surviving son of Charles I, he ascended the throne upon the death of his brother, Charles II. Members of Britain's Protestant political elite increasingly suspected him of being pro-French and pro-Catholic and of having designs on becoming an absolute monarch. When he produced a Catholic heir, a son called James Francis Edward, leading nobles called on his Protestant son-in-law and nephew William III of Orange to land an invasion army from the Dutch Republic, which he did in the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
of 1688
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Oliver Cromwell
English Civil War:Gainsborough Marston Moor Newbury II Naseby Langport Preston Dunbar WorcesterRoyal styles of Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector
Lord Protector
of the CommonwealthReference style His HighnessSpoken style Your HighnessAlternative style Sir Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
(25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658)[a] was an English military and political leader. He served as Lord Protector
Lord Protector
of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1653 until his death, acting simultaneously as head of state and head of government of the new republic. Cromwell was born into the middle gentry, albeit to a family descended from the sister of King Henry VIII's minister Thomas Cromwell
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Convention Of Edinburgh
The Convention of Estates of Scotland was a sister institution to the Scottish Parliament which sat from the early sixteenth century. Initially it was only attended by the clergy and nobles, but the burgh commissioners were later added. Like its predecessor General Council it played an important role in political and legislative affairs in Scotland in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. See also[edit] List of Parliaments of Scotland (includes Conventions of Estates) Commissioner (Scottish Parliament) Convention of Estates of Scotland (1689) Claim of Right Act 1689 Three Estates of ScotlandFurther reading[edit] R. S. Rait, The Parliaments of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1920). K. M. Brown, R. J. Tanner and A. J. Mann (eds), The History of the Scottish Parliament, volumes 1 and 2 (Edinburgh, 2004-6)   This Scottish history-related article is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eThis article about an organisation in Scotland is a stub
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Holyrood Palace
The Palace of Holyroodhouse (/ˈhɒlɪˌruːd/ or /ˈhoʊlɪˌruːd/[1]), commonly referred to as Holyrood Palace, is the official residence of the British monarch in Scotland, Queen Elizabeth II. Located at the bottom of the Royal Mile
Royal Mile
in Edinburgh, at the opposite end to Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Castle, Holyrood Palace
Holyrood Palace
has served as the principal residence of the Kings and Queens of Scots since the 16th century, and is a setting for state occasions and official entertaining. Queen Elizabeth spends one week in residence at Holyrood Palace
Holyrood Palace
at the beginning of each summer, where she carries out a range of official engagements and ceremonies
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