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William Alfred Fowler
William Alfred "Willy" Fowler (/ˈfaʊlər/; August 9, 1911 – March 14, 1995) was an American nuclear physicist, later astrophysicist, who, with Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
won the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physics.Contents1 Biography 2 Publications2.1 Obituaries3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Fowler moved with his family to Lima, Ohio, a steam railroad town, at the age of two. He graduated from the Ohio
Ohio
State University, where he was a member of the Tau Kappa Epsilon fraternity, and received a Ph.D. in nuclear physics at the California
California
Institute of Technology. Although an experimental nuclear physicist, Fowler's most famous paper was "Synthesis of the Elements in Stars", coauthored with Cambridge cosmologist Fred Hoyle
Fred Hoyle
and in collaboration with two young Cambridge astronomers, E
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Office Of Scientific And Technical Information
The Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) is a component of the Office of Science within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Energy Policy Act PL 109-58, Section 982, called out the responsibility of OSTI: “The Secretary, through the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, shall maintain with the Department publicly available collections of scientific and technical information resulting from research, development, demonstration, and commercial applications activities supported by the Department.”Contents1 Resources 2 Science information resources freely available for public use 3 Related legislation 4 See also 5 External linksResources[edit] OSTI provides access to energy, science, and technology information through publicly available web-based systems, with supporting tools and technologies to enable information search, retrieval and re-use. Science information resources freely available for public use[edit]This section needs to be updated
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Nuclear Reaction
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process. Thus, a nuclear reaction must cause a transformation of at least one nuclide to another. If a nucleus interacts with another nucleus or particle and they then separate without changing the nature of any nuclide, the process is simply referred to as a type of nuclear scattering, rather than a nuclear reaction. In principle, a reaction can involve more than two particles colliding, but because the probability of three or more nuclei to meet at the same time at the same place is much less than for two nuclei, such an event is exceptionally rare (see triple alpha process for an example very close to a three-body nuclear reaction)
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Ohio State University
The Ohio
Ohio
State University, commonly referred to as Ohio
Ohio
State or OSU, is a large, primarily residential,[5] public university in Columbus, Ohio. Founded in 1870 as a land-grant university and ninth university in Ohio
Ohio
with the Morrill Act of 1862,[6] the university was originally known as the Ohio
Ohio
Agricultural and Mechanical College (Mech). The college began with a focus on training students in various agricultural and mechanical disciplines but was developed into a comprehensive university under the direction of then Governor (later, President) Rutherford B
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Nuclear Physics
Nuclear physics
Nuclear physics
is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions. Other forms of nuclear matter are also studied.[1] Nuclear physics
Nuclear physics
should not be confused with atomic physics, which studies the atom as a whole, including its electrons. Discoveries in nuclear physics have led to applications in many fields. This includes nuclear power, nuclear weapons, nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging, industrial and agricultural isotopes, ion implantation in materials engineering, and radiocarbon dating in geology and archaeology. Such applications are studied in the field of nuclear engineering. Particle physics
Particle physics
evolved out of nuclear physics and the two fields are typically taught in close association
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Chemical Element
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).[1] 118 elements are identified, of which the first 94 occur naturally on Earth
Earth
with the remaining 24 being synthetic elements. There are 80 elements that have at least one stable isotope and 38 that have exclusively radionuclides, which decay over time into other elements. Iron
Iron
is the most abundant element (by mass) making up Earth, while oxygen is the most common element in the Earth's crust.[2] Chemical elements constitute all of the ordinary matter of the universe
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Steven E. Koonin
Steven E. Koonin (born December 12, 1951)[1] is a theoretical physicist and Director of the Center for Urban Science and Progress at New York University. He is also a professor in the Department of Civil and Urban Engineering at NYU's Tandon School of Engineering.[2]Contents1 Biography 2 Views on climate science 3 Bibliography 4 ReferencesBiography[edit] Koonin received his Bachelor of Science from Caltech and his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[3] In 1975, Koonin joined the faculty of the California Institute of Technology as a Professor of Theoretical Physics, and served as the Institute's provost from 1995 to 2004.[4] In 2004, Koonin joined BP as their Chief Scientist where he was responsible for guiding the company’s long-range technology strategy, particularly in alternative and renewable energy sources.[5][citation needed] In 2009, he was appointed the U.S
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American Astronomical Society
The American Astronomical Society (AAS, sometimes spoken as "double-A-S") is an American society of professional astronomers and other interested individuals, headquartered in Washington, DC. The primary objective of the AAS is to promote the advancement of astronomy and closely related branches of science, while the secondary purpose includes enhancing astronomy education and providing a political voice for its members through lobbying and grassroots activities. Its current mission is to enhance and share humanity's scientific understanding of the universe.Contents1 History 2 Divisions 3 Publications 4 Prizes 5 Past presidents 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] The society was founded in 1899 through the efforts of George Ellery Hale
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Astronomical Society Of The Pacific
The Astronomical Society of the Pacific
Astronomical Society of the Pacific
(ASP) is an American scientific and educational organization, founded in San Francisco
San Francisco
on February 7, 1889. Its name derives from its origins on the Pacific Coast, but today it has members all over the country and the world. It has the legal status of a nonprofit organization. It is the largest general astronomy education society in the world[citation needed], with members from over 40 countries. The ASP's goal is to promote public interest in and awareness of astronomy (and increase scientific literacy) through its publications, web site, and many educational and outreach programs
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American Academy Of Arts And Sciences
Coordinates: 42°22′51″N 71°06′37″W / 42.380755°N 71.110256°W / 42.380755; -71.110256American Academy of Arts and Sciences American Academy of Arts and Sciences
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
logoMotto To cultivate every art and science which may tend to advance the interest, honour, dignity, and happiness of a free, independent, and virtuous people.Formation May 4, 1780 (1780-05-04)Type Honorary society and center for policy researchPurpose Honoring excellence and providing service to the nation and the worldHeadquarters Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.Membership4,900 fellows and 600 foreign honorary membersWebsite www.amacad.orgThe House of the Academy, Cambridge, MassachusettsThe American Academy of Arts and Sciences
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States of America
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Astrophysicist
Astrophysics
Astrophysics
is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space."[1][2] Among the objects studied are the Sun, other stars, galaxies, extrasolar planets, the interstellar medium and the cosmic microwave background.[3][4] Their emissions are examined across all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, and the properties examined include luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition
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Steam Locomotive
A steam locomotive is a type of railway locomotive that produces its pulling power through a steam engine. These locomotives are fueled by burning combustible material – usually coal, wood, or oil – to produce steam in a boiler. The steam moves reciprocating pistons which are mechanically connected to the locomotive's main wheels (drivers). Both fuel and water supplies are carried with the locomotive, either on the locomotive itself or in wagons (tenders) pulled behind. Steam locomotives were first developed in Great Britain during the early 19th century and used for railway transport until the middle of the 20th century. The first steam locomotive, made by Richard Trevithick, first operated on 21 February 1804, three years after the road locomotive he made in 1801
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Physical Review
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols. It publishes original research as well as scientific and literature reviews on all aspects of physics. It is published by the American Physical Society
American Physical Society
(APS). The journal is in its third series, and is split in several sub-journals each covering a particular field of physics. It has a sister journal, Physical Review Letters, which publishes shorter articles of broader interest.Contents1 History 2 Journals 3 Notes and references 4 External linksHistory[edit] Physical Review commenced publication in July 1893, organized by Cornell University
Cornell University
professor Edward Nichols and helped by the new president of Cornell, J. Gould Schurman
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Bibcode
The bibcode (also known as the refcode) is a compact identifier used by several astronomical data systems to uniquely specify literature references.Contents1 Adoption 2 Format 3 Examples 4 See also 5 ReferencesAdoption[edit] The Bibliographic Reference Code (refcode) was originally developed to be used in SIMBAD
SIMBAD
and the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
(NED), but it became a de facto standard and is now used more widely, for example, by the NASA Astrophysics Data System
Astrophysics Data System
who coined and prefer the term "bibcode".[1][2] Format[edit] The code has a fixed length of 19 characters and has the form YYYYJJJJJVVVVMPPPPA where YYYY is the four-digit year of the reference and JJJJJ is a code indicating where the reference was published
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Annals Of Physics
Annals of Physics
Physics
is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of physics. It was established in 1957 and is published by Elsevier. The editor-in-chief is Brian Greene
Brian Greene
(Columbia University). Abstracting and indexing[edit] The journal is abstracted and indexed in:Astrophysics Data Systems Chemical Abstracts Current Contents/Physics Current Contents/Chemistry & Earth Science International Aerospace Abstracts Mathematical Reviews Nuclear Science Abstracts Science Abstracts/ Physics
Physics
Abstracts Science Citation Index Scopus Zentralblatt MATHAccording to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2013 impact factor of 3.065.[1] References[edit]^ "Annals of Physics". 2013 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2014. External links[edit]Official websiteThis article about a physics journal is a stub
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