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William Alfred Fowler
WILLIAM ALFRED "WILLIE" FOWLER (/ˈfaʊlər/ ; August 9, 1911 – March 14, 1995) was an American nuclear physicist, later astrophysicist , who, with Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
won the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Publications * 2.1 Obituaries * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYBorn in Pittsburgh , Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, Fowler moved with his family to Lima , Ohio
Ohio
, a steam railroad town, at the age of two. He graduated from the Ohio
Ohio
State University , where he was a member of the Tau Kappa Epsilon fraternity, and went on to receive a Ph.D. in nuclear physics at the California
California
Institute of Technology
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Steven E. Koonin
STEVEN E. KOONIN (born December 12, 1951) is a theoretical physicist and Director of the Center for Urban Science and Progress at New York University . He is also a professor in the Department of Civil and Urban Engineering at NYU's Tandon School of Engineering . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Views on climate science * 3 Bibliography * 4 External links * 5 References BIOGRAPHYKoonin received his Bachelor of Science from Caltech and his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology . In 1975, Koonin joined the faculty of the California Institute of Technology as a Professor of Theoretical Physics , and served as the Institute's provost from 1995 to 2004. In 2004, Koonin joined BP as their Chief Scientist where he was responsible for guiding the company’s long-range technology strategy, particularly in alternative and renewable energy sources
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American Astronomical Society
The AMERICAN ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY (AAS, sometimes spoken as "double-A-S") is an American society of professional astronomers and other interested individuals, headquartered in Washington, DC
Washington, DC
. The primary objective of the AAS is to promote the advancement of astronomy and closely related branches of science, while the secondary purpose includes enhancing astronomy education and providing a political voice for its members through lobbying and grassroots activities. Its current mission is to enhance and share humanity's scientific understanding of the universe. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Divisions * 3 Publications * 4 Prizes * 5 Past presidents * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYThe society was founded in 1899 through the efforts of George Ellery Hale . The constitution of the group was written by Hale, George Comstock , Edward Morley , Simon Newcomb and Edward Charles Pickering
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Astronomical Society Of The Pacific
The ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF THE PACIFIC (ASP) is a scientific and educational organization, founded in San Francisco
San Francisco
on February 7, 1889. Its name derives from its origins on the Pacific Coast, but today it has members all over the country and the world. It has the legal status of a nonprofit organization. It is the largest general astronomy education society in the world, with members from over 40 countries
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Nuclear Reaction
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry , a NUCLEAR REACTION is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei , or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton , neutron , or high energy electron ) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process. Thus, a nuclear reaction must cause a transformation of at least one nuclide to another. If a nucleus interacts with another nucleus or particle and they then separate without changing the nature of any nuclide, the process is simply referred to as a type of nuclear scattering , rather than a nuclear reaction
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Chemical Element
A CHEMICAL ELEMENT or ELEMENT is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (i.e. the same atomic number , or Z). There are 118 elements that have been identified, of which the first 94 occur naturally on Earth
Earth
with the remaining 24 being synthetic elements . There are 80 elements that have at least one stable isotope and 38 that have exclusively radioactive isotopes , which decay over time into other elements. Iron
Iron
is the most abundant element (by mass ) making up Earth, while oxygen is the most common element in the Earth\'s crust . Chemical elements constitute all of the ordinary matter of the universe. However astronomical observations suggest that ordinary observable matter makes up only about 15% of the matter in the universe: the remainder is dark matter ; the composition of this is unknown, but it is not composed of chemical elements
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Nuclear Physics
NUCLEAR PHYSICS is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions. Other forms of nuclear matter are also studied. Nuclear physics
Nuclear physics
should not be confused with atomic physics , which studies the atom as a whole, including its electrons . Discoveries in nuclear physics have led to applications in many fields. This includes nuclear power , nuclear weapons , nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging , industrial and agricultural isotopes, ion implantation in materials engineering , and radiocarbon dating in geology and archaeology . Such applications are studied in the field of nuclear engineering . Particle physics
Particle physics
evolved out of nuclear physics and the two fields are typically taught in close association
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Astrophysicist
ASTROPHYSICS is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the heavenly bodies , rather than their positions or motions in space." Among the objects studied are the Sun
Sun
, other stars , galaxies , extrasolar planets , the interstellar medium and the cosmic microwave background . Their emissions are examined across all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum , and the properties examined include luminosity , density , temperature , and chemical composition. Because astrophysics is a very broad subject, astrophysicists typically apply many disciplines of physics, including mechanics , electromagnetism , statistical mechanics , thermodynamics , quantum mechanics , relativity , nuclear and particle physics , and atomic and molecular physics . In practice, modern astronomical research often involves a substantial amount of work in the realms of theoretical and observational physics
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Ohio
OHIO /oʊˈhaɪ.oʊ/ ( listen ) is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States . Ohio is the 34th largest by area , the 7th most populous , and the 10th most densely populated of the 50 United States . The state's capital and largest city is Columbus . The state takes its name from the Ohio River . The name originated from the Seneca language word ohiːyo', meaning "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory , the state was admitted to the Union as the 17th state (and the first under the Northwest Ordinance ) on March 1, 1803. Ohio is historically known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees , and Ohioans are also known as "Buckeyes"
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Tau Kappa Epsilon
TAU KAPPA EPSILON (ΤΚΕ or TEKE, pronounced T-K-E or Tēk) is an international all-male secret and social college fraternity founded on January 10, 1899, at Illinois Wesleyan University . The organization has chapters in the United States, Canada, and an affiliation with a German fraternity system known as the Corps of the Weinheimer Senioren-Convent (WSC). As of Fall 2016 there were 243 active TKE chapters and colonies throughout the United States and Canada. In 1928, TKE became one of the first fraternities to abolish "hell week ", instead replacing it with a secret initiation period
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Steam Locomotive
A STEAM LOCOMOTIVE is a type of railway locomotive that produces its pulling power through a steam engine . These locomotives are fueled by burning combustible material – usually coal, wood, or oil – to produce steam in a boiler . The steam moves reciprocating pistons which are mechanically connected to the locomotive's main wheels (drivers). Both fuel and water supplies are carried with the locomotive, either on the locomotive itself or in wagons (tenders) pulled behind. The first steam locomotive, made by Richard Trevithick , first operated on 21 February 1804, three years after the road locomotive he made in 1801. The first practical steam locomotive was created in 1812–13 by John Blenkinsop . Built by George Stephenson and his son Robert 's company Robert Stephenson
Robert Stephenson
and Company , the Locomotion No
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Physical Review
1893–1913 Series I 1913–1970 Series II 1970–present Series III 1970–present Phys. Rev. A, B, C, D 1993–present Phys. Rev. E 1998–present Phys. Rev. AB 2005–present Phys. Rev. PER 2008–present Physics 2011–present Phys. Rev. X 2014–present Phys. Rev. Applied 2016–present Phys. Rev. Fluids 2017–present Phys. Rev. Materials LINKS * Journal homepagePHYSICAL REVIEW is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols . It publishes original research as well as scientific and literature reviews on all aspects of physics . It is published by the American Physical Society
American Physical Society
(APS). The journal is in its third series, and is split in several sub-journals each covering a particular field of physics. It has a sister journal, Physical Review Letters , which publishes shorter articles of broader interest
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Office Of Scientific And Technical Information
The OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION (OSTI) is a component of the Office of Science within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Energy Policy Act PL 109-58, Section 982, called out the responsibility of OSTI: “The Secretary, through the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, shall maintain with the Department publicly available collections of scientific and technical information resulting from research, development, demonstration, and commercial applications activities supported by the Department.” CONTENTS * 1 Resources * 2 Science information resources freely available for public use * 3 Related legislation * 4 See also * 5 External links RESOURCESOSTI provides access to energy, science, and technology information through publicly available web-based systems, with supporting tools and technologies to enable information search, retrieval and re-use
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Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
THE ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, often abbreviated APJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy , established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler . The journal discontinued its print edition and became an electronic-only journal in 2015. Since 1953 THE ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES (APJS) has been published in conjunction with The Astrophysical Journal, with generally longer articles to supplement the material in the journal. It publishes six volumes per year, with two 280-page issues per volume. THE ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS (APJL) is another section of The Astrophysical Journal which rapidly publishes short communications
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Physical Review Letters
PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed , scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society
American Physical Society
. As also confirmed by various measurement standards, which include the Journal Citation Reports impact factor and the journal h-index proposed by Google Scholar
Google Scholar
, many physicists and other scientists consider Physical Review Letters one of the most prestigious journals in the field of physics . PRL is published as a print journal, and is in electronic format, online and CD-ROM. Its focus is rapid dissemination of significant, or notable, results of fundamental research on all topics related to all fields of physics . This is accomplished by rapid publication of short reports, called "Letters". Papers are published and available electronically one article at a time
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W. K. Kellogg Radiation Laboratory
The LIST OF CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES includes buildings and facilities of California Institute of Technology . The listing does not include off-campus/co-owned properties. PHOTO NAME DATE COMPETED NOTES Gates and Crellin Laboratories of Chemistry 1917, 1927, 1937 The oldest existing building on campus. The 1917 portion of Gates was damaged in the 1971 San Fernando earthquake , and was rebuilt in 1983 as the Parsons-Gates Hall of Administration. Norman Bridge Laboratory of Physics 1922, 1924, 1925 Alfred P. Sloan Laboratory of Mathematics and Physics 1925 Originally the High Voltage Research Laboratory, which was retired and rebuilt in 1960 into its 1960-2017 configuration. The interior was again stripped entirely and remains under renovation as of 2018. Dabney Hall 1928 William G
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