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Wilhelm Bacher
Wilhelm Bacher (Hungarian: Bacher Vilmos; Yiddish: בִּנְיָמִין־זְאֵב בּאַככֿר‎, Hebrew: בִּנְיָמִין־זְאֵב בכר‎ Benjamin Ze'ev Bacher; 12 January 1850 – 25 December 1913)[1] was a Jewish Hungarian scholar, rabbi, Orientalist and linguist, born in Liptó-Szent-Miklós, Hungary to the Hebrew writer Simon Bacher.[2] Wilhelm was himself a prolific writer, authoring or co-authoring approximately 750 works. He was a contributor to many encyclopedias, and was a major contributor to the landmark Jewish Encyclopedia
Jewish Encyclopedia
throughout all its 12 volumes (Dotan 1977)
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Hungarian Language
Hungarian ( magyar nyelv (help·info)) is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary
Hungary
and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary
Hungary
and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary
Hungary
it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians
Hungarians
in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania
Romania
(Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia
Serbia
(Vojvodina), southern Poland[citation needed], northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia
Slovenia
due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians
Hungarians
being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
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Saadia
Rabbi Sa'adiah ben Yosef Gaon (Arabic: سعيد بن يوسف الفيومي‎ / סעיד בן יוסף אלפיומי Saʻīd bin Yūsuf al-Fayyūmi, Sa'id ibn Yusuf al-Dilasi, Saadia ben Yosef aluf, Sa'id ben Yusuf ra's al-Kull;[1] Hebrew: רבי סעדיה בן יוסף אלפיומי גאון'‬ or in short: סעדיה גאון‬; alternative English Names: Rabeinu Sa'adiah Gaon ("our Rabbi [the] Saadia Gaon"), RaSaG, Saadia b. Joseph,[2] Saadia ben Joseph or Saadia ben Joseph of Faym or Saadia ben Joseph Al-Fayyumi; 882/892 – 942)[3][4] was a prominent rabbi, Jewish philosopher, and exegete of the Geonic period who was active in the Abbasid Caliphate. The first important rabbinic figure to write extensively in Arabic, he is considered the founder of Judeo-Arabic literature.[5] Known for his works on Hebrew linguistics, Halakha, and Jewish philosophy, he was one of the more sophisticated practitioners of the philosophical school known as the "Jewish Kalam" (Stroumsa 2003)
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Moses Bloch
Moses Löb Bloch (15 February 1815 – 6 August 1909) was a Hungarian rabbi and rector at the Rabbinical Seminary of Budapest.[1]Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 Family 4 References 5 Further readingLife[edit] After studying under Philipp Kohner, a pupil of Ezekiel Landau, district rabbi of Pilsen, Bloch was entrusted to the care of his uncle, Wolf Löw, author of the Sha'are Torah. Löw, who guided the boy's studies for seven years (1827–34) in his house at Gross-Tapolcsány
Gross-Tapolcsány
(Hungary), is often quoted in his nephew's lectures. On graduating from the gymnasium at Pilsen, he went in 1840 to the University of Prague, and was appointed a rabbi at Wotitz in 1841, when he married Anna Weishut (died 1886). He was called as rabbi to Hermanmiestec, Bohemia, in 1852, and to Leipnik, Moravia, in 1856, where he remained until October 1877
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David Kaufmann
David Kaufmann
David Kaufmann
(7 June 1852 – 6 July 1899) (Hebrew: דוד קויפמן) was a Jewish-Austrian
Jewish-Austrian
scholar born at Kojetín, Moravia (now in the Czech Republic). From 1861 to 1867 he attended the gymnasium at Kroměříž, Moravia, where he studied the Bible
Bible
and Talmud
Talmud
with Jacob Brüll, rabbi of Kojetín, and with the latter's son Nehemiah.Contents1 His Life 2 His Works 3 Contributions to Jewish History 4 On Jewish Art 5 Jewish Encyclopedia bibliography 6 References 7 External linksHis Life[edit] In 1867 he went to the Jewish Theological Seminary at Breslau, where he studied for ten years, attending at the same time the university of that city. In the summer of 1874 he received his Ph.D
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Biblical
Outline of Bible-related topics   Bible
Bible
book    Bible
Bible
portalv t eThe Bible
Bible
(from Koine Greek
Koine Greek
τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books")[1] is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews
Jews
and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans. Many different authors contributed to the Bible
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Jewish History
Jewish history
Jewish history
is the history of the Jews, and their religion and culture, as it developed and interacted with other peoples, religions and cultures. Although Judaism
Judaism
as a religion first appears in Greek records during the Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(323 BCE – 31 BCE) and the earliest mention of Israel
Israel
is inscribed on the Merneptah Stele
Merneptah Stele
dated 1213–1203 BCE, religious literature tells the story of Israelites going back at least as far as c. 1500 BCE. The Jewish diaspora
Jewish diaspora
began with the Assyrian conquest and continued on a much larger scale with the Babylonian conquest. Jews
Jews
were also widespread throughout the Roman Empire, and this carried on to a lesser extent in the period of Byzantine rule in the central and eastern Mediterranean
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Austro-Hungarian Army
The Austro-Hungarian Army
Army
(German: Landstreitkräfte Österreich-Ungarns; Hungarian: Császári és Királyi Hadsereg) was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy
Dual Monarchy
from 1867 to 1918. It was composed of three parts: the joint army (Gemeinsame Armee, "Common Army", recruited from all parts of the country), the Imperial Austrian Landwehr
Landwehr
(recruited from Cisleithania), and the Royal Hungarian Honved
Royal Hungarian Honved
(recruited from Transleithania). In the wake of fighting between the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
and the Hungarian Kingdom and the two decades of uneasy co-existence following, Hungarian soldiers served either in mixed units or were stationed away from Hungarian areas. With the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
the new tripartite army was brought into being
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Bosnia And Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina (/ˈbɒzniə ... ˌhɛərtsəɡoʊˈviːnə, -ˌhɜːrt-, -ɡə-/ ( listen) or /ˌhɜːrtsəˈɡɒvɪnə/;[10][11] abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) pronounced [bôsna i xěrtseɡoʋina]), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe
Europe
located on the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is the capital and largest city. It is bordered by Croatia
Croatia
to the north and west; Serbia
Serbia
to the east; Montenegro
Montenegro
to the southeast; and the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
to the south, with a coastline about 20 kilometres (12 miles) long surrounding the town of Neum
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Pest, Hungary
Pest (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈpɛʃt]) is the eastern, mostly flat part of Budapest, Hungary, comprising about two thirds of the city's territory. It is separated from Buda
Buda
and Óbuda, the western parts of Budapest, by the Danube
Danube
River. Among its most notable parts are the Inner City, including the Hungarian Parliament, Heroes' Square and Andrássy Avenue. In colloquial Hungarian, "Pest" is often used for the whole capital of Budapest
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H. Grätz
Heinrich Graetz
Heinrich Graetz
(German: [ɡʀɛʦ]; October 31, 1817[1] – September 7, 1891) was amongst the first historians to write a comprehensive history of the Jewish people from a Jewish perspective. Born Tzvi Hirsh Graetz to a butcher family in Xions (now Książ Wielkopolski), Grand Duchy of Posen, in Prussia (now in Poland), he attended Breslau University, but since Jews at that time were barred from receiving Ph.D.s there, he obtained his doctorate from the University of Jena.[2] After 1845 he was principal of the Jewish Orthodox school of the Breslau community, and later taught history at the Jewish Theological Seminary in Breslau (now Wrocław, Poland). His magnum opus History of the Jews was quickly translated into other languages and ignited worldwide interest in Jewish history. In 1869 the University of Breslau (Wrocław) granted him the title of Honorary Professor
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L. Zunz
Leopold Zunz (Hebrew: יום טוב צונץ‬—Yom Tov Tzuntz, Yiddish: ליפמן צונץ‎—Lipmann Zunz; 10 August 1794 – 17 March 1886) was the founder of academic Judaic Studies (Wissenschaft des Judentums), the critical investigation of Jewish literature, hymnology and ritual.[1] Zunz's historical investigations and contemporary writings had an important influence on contemporary Judaism.Contents1 Biography 2 Works 3 Notes 4 Sources 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] Leopold Zunz was born at Detmold, the son of Talmud scholar Immanuel Menachem Zunz (1759-1802) and Hendel Behrens (1773-1809), the daughter of Dov Beer,[2] an assistant cantor of the Detmold community.[3] The year following his birth his family moved to Hamburg, where, as a young boy, he began learning Hebrew grammar, the Pentateuch, and the Talmud.[2] His father, who was his first teacher, died in July 1802, when Zunz was not quite eight years old.[4] He subsequently gained adm
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Joseph Ḳimḥi
Joseph Ḳimḥi (Kimchi) (Qimhi) (1105–1170) (Hebrew: יוסף קמחי‬) was a medieval Jewish rabbi and biblical commentator. He was the father of Moses and David Kimhi, and the teacher of Rabbi Menachem Ben Simeon and poet Joseph Zabara. Grammarian, exegete, poet, and translator; born in southern Spain about 1105; died about 1170. Forced to leave his native country owing to the religious persecutions of the Almohades who invaded the Spanish Peninsula in 1146, he settled in Narbonne, Provence, where he spent the rest of his life. The Provence region of southern France, at a time when the local Jewish population was under the considerable influence of the neighboring Spanish-Jewish community to the South. He is known to have written commentaries on all the books of the Bible, though only fragments of his work have survived until today
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Yiddish Language
Yiddish
Yiddish
(ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, lit. "Jewish", pronounced [ˈjɪdɪʃ] [ˈɪdɪʃ]; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, lit. Judaeo-German)[3] is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews. It originated during the 9th century[4] in Central Europe, providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with a High German-based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic as well as from Slavic languages
Slavic languages
and traces of Romance languages.[5][6] Yiddish
Yiddish
is written with a fully vocalized version of the Hebrew alphabet. The earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז‎ (loshn-ashknaz, "language of Ashkenaz") or טײַטש‎ (taytsh), a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German
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Meḳiẓe Nirdamim
The Mekitze Nirdamim (Biblical Hebrew: מקיצי נרדמים‎ "awakening the slumbering") is a society for the publication of old Hebrew language books and manuscripts that were either never published or long out of print.[1] It was established first at Łęg, Kingdom of Prussia (now Ełk Poland) in 1864.[2] It was under the direction of Rabbi Nathan Marcus Adler,[3] Moses Montefiore, and Joseph Zedner (London), Albert Cohn (Paris), Samuel David Luzzatto (Padua), Michael Sachs (Berlin), Eliezer Lipman Silberman (Łęg), and Mattityahu Strashun (Vilnius). It was re-established at Berlin in 1885 under the supervision of Abraham Berliner (Berlin), Moses Levi Ehrenreich (Rome), Joseph Derenbourg and David Günzburg (Paris), Solomon Joachim Halberstam (Bielsko), Abraham Harkavy (Saint Petersburg), Marcus Jastrow (Philadelphia), David Kaufmann (Budapest), and Mattityahu Strashun (Vilnius). References[edit]^ Hoffman, Anne Golomb (2012). Between Exile and Return: S. Y
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A. Neubauer
Adolf Neubauer (11 March 1831 in Bittse (a.k.a. Nagybiccse, German: Bitsch, Slovak: Bytča), Upper Hungary, Kingdom of Hungary, Austrian Empire – 6 April 1907, London) was sublibrarian at the Bodleian Library and reader in Rabbinic Hebrew at Oxford University.Contents1 Biography 2 Works 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksBiography[edit] Born in Bittse, Hungary, he received a thorough education in rabbinical literature. In 1850 he obtained a position at the Austrian Consulate in Jerusalem. At this time he published articles about the situation of the city's Jewish population, which aroused the anger of some leaders of that community, with whom he became involved in a prolonged controversy. In 1857 he moved to Paris where he continued his studies of Judaism and started producing scientific publications
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