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Wildlife Of Iran
The WILDLIFE OF IRAN includes its flora and fauna and their natural habitats . One of the most famous members of wildlife in Iran
Iran
are the world's last surviving, critically endangered Asiatic cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus) also known as the Iranian cheetah, which are today found nowhere else but in Iran. Iran
Iran
had lost all its elephants , lions and tigers by the 21st century
21st century
. CONTENTS * 1 Flora
Flora
* 2 Fauna
Fauna
* 2.1 Endangered * 2.2 Extinct * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links FLORA Fritillaria imperialis of Iran. 4000-year-old Cypress of Abarqu , Iran. More than one-tenth of the country is forested
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Gazelle
Several, see text A GAZELLE is any of many antelope species in the genus GAZELLA or formerly considered to belong to it. Six species are included in two genera , Eudorcas and Nanger , which were formerly considered subgenera . The genus Procapra has also been considered a subgenus of Gazella, and its members are also referred to as gazelles, though they are not dealt with in this article. Gazelles are known as swift animals. Some are able to run at bursts as high as 100 km/h (60 mph) or run at a sustained speed of 50 km/h (30 mph). Gazelles are found mostly in the deserts, grasslands, and savannas of Africa
Africa
; but they are also found in southwest and central Asia and the Indian subcontinent . They tend to live in herds, and eat less coarse, easily digestible plants and leaves. Gazelles are rather small antelopes, most standing 60–110 cm (2–3.5 ft) high at the shoulder, and are generally fawn-colored
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Bear
Amphicynodontinae Hemicyoninae
Hemicyoninae
†Ursavinae † Agriotheriinae
Agriotheriinae
Ailuropodinae
Ailuropodinae
Tremarctinae
Tremarctinae
Ursinae
Ursinae
BEARS are carnivoran mammals of the family URSIDAE. They are classified as caniforms , or doglike carnivorans. Although only eight species of bears are extant, they are widespread, appearing in a wide variety of habitats throughout the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and partially in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
. Bears are found on the continents of North America
North America
, South America
South America
, Europe
Europe
, and Asia
Asia

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Wild Pig
The WILD BOAR (Sus scrofa), also known as the WILD SWINE or EURASIAN WILD PIG, is a suid native to much of Eurasia
Eurasia
, North Africa
North Africa
, and the Greater Sunda Islands
Greater Sunda Islands
. Human
Human
intervention has spread its distribution further, making the species one of the widest-ranging mammals in the world, as well as the most widely spread suiform . Its wide range, high numbers, and adaptability mean that it is classed as least concern by the IUCN
IUCN
and it has become an invasive species in part of its introduced range. The animal probably originated in Southeast Asia during the Early Pleistocene
Pleistocene
, and outcompeted other suid species as it spread throughout the Old World
Old World

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Wolf
Numerous and disputed, see Subspecies of Canis
Canis
lupus Historical (red) and modern (green) range of wild subspecies of C. lupusThe GRAY WOLF or GREY WOLF ( Canis
Canis
lupus), also known as the TIMBER WOLF or WESTERN WOLF, is a canine native to the wilderness and remote areas of Eurasia
Eurasia
and North America
North America
. It is the largest extant member of its family, with males averaging 43–45 kg (95–99 lb) and females 36–38.5 kg (79–85 lb). Like the red wolf , it is distinguished from other Canis
Canis
species by its larger size and less pointed features, particularly on the ears and muzzle. Its winter fur is long and bushy and predominantly a mottled gray in color, although nearly pure white, red, and brown to black also occur. As of 2005, 37 subspecies of C. lupus are recognised by MSW3
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Jackal
Golden jackal
Golden jackal
, Canis
Canis
aureus Side-striped jackal Canis
Canis
adustus Black-backed jackal Canis
Canis
mesomelas JACKALS are medium-sized omnivorous mammals of the genus Canis
Canis
, which also includes wolves and the domestic dog . While the word "jackal" has historically been used for many small canids, in modern use it most commonly refers to three species: the closely related black-backed jackal and side-striped jackal of sub-Saharan Africa, and the golden jackal of south-central Eurasia, which is more closely related to other members of the genus Canis. Jackals and coyotes (sometimes called the "American jackal" ) are opportunistic omnivores, predators of small- to medium-sized animals and proficient scavengers
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Long-legged Buzzard
The LONG-LEGGED BUZZARD ( Buteo
Buteo
rufinus) is a bird of prey in the Buteo
Buteo
genus. It is similar in appearance to the rough-legged buzzard ( Buteo
Buteo
lagopus), but it is larger and more robust. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Distribution and habitat * 3 Feeding * 4 Subspecies
Subspecies
* 5 References * 6 External links DESCRIPTION Illustration by Keulemans , 1874 This is one of the largest species of Buteo
Buteo
. Length can range from 50 to 66 cm (20 to 26 in) and wingspan from 115 to 160 cm (45 to 63 in). Females, at an average mass of 1.3 kg (2.9 lb), are larger than males, at an average of 1.1 kg (2.4 lb)
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Golden Jackal
7, see text The GOLDEN JACKAL ( Canis
Canis
aureus) is a canid native to southeastern and central Europe
Europe
, Asia Minor
Asia Minor
, the Middle East
Middle East
and South Asia
South Asia
. It is listed as Least Concern
Least Concern
on the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
, due to its widespread range in areas with optimum food and shelter. It is a social species, the basic social unit of which consists of a breeding pair and any offspring it might have. The golden jackal is very adaptable, being able to exploit many foodstuffs, from fruit and insects to small ungulates
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Dasht-e Kavir
DASHT-E KAVIR (Persian : دشت كوير‎, lit. 'Low Plains' in classical Persian, from khwar (low), and dasht (plain), flatland), also known as KAVIR-E NAMAK (lit. 'salty lowlands') and the GREAT SALT DESERT, is a large desert lying in the middle of the Iranian plateau
Iranian plateau
. It is about 800 km (500 mi) by 320 km (200 mi) with a total surface area of about 77,600 km2 (30,000 sq mi), making it the Earth\'s 26th largest desert
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Sub-tropical
The SUBTROPICS are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer
Tropic of Cancer
and Tropic of Capricorn
Tropic of Capricorn
) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator
Equator
. Subtropical climates are often characterized by warm to hot summers and cool to mild winters with infrequent frost. Most subtropical climates fall into two basic types - humid subtropical , where rainfall is often concentrated in the warmest months (for example Brisbane
Brisbane
or Jacksonville, Florida
Jacksonville, Florida
) and dry summer (or Mediterranean ), where seasonal rainfall is concentrated in the cooler months (for example Naples
Naples
, Italy
Italy
or Los Angeles, California
Los Angeles, California
)
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Hara Forests
The MANGROVE FORESTS OF QESHM or HARA FORESTS OF QESHM is the common name for mangrove forests on the southern coast of Iran
Iran
, particularly on and near the island of Qeshm in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
. Dominated by the species Avicennia marina , known locally as the "hara" or "harra" tree, the forests represent an important ecological resource. The "Hara Protected Area" on Quesm and the nearby mainland is a biosphere reserve where commercial use is restricted to fishing (mainly shrimp ), tourist boat trips, and limited mangrove cutting for animal feed. CONTENTS * 1 Hara tree characteristics * 2 Forest
Forest
extent and significance * 3 History * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HARA TREE CHARACTERISTICSThe hara tree, Avicennia marina, grows to heights of three to eight meters and has bright green leaves and twigs
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. In one sense (circumscription ), the term refers to GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Panthera
Panthera tigris
Panthera tigris
Panthera uncia Panthera onca
Panthera onca
Panthera leo
Panthera leo
Panthera pardus
Panthera pardus
PANTHERA is a genus within the Felidae
Felidae
family that was named and first described by the German naturalist Oken in 1816. The British taxonomist Pocock revised the classification of this genus in 1916 as comprising the species lion , tiger , jaguar , and leopard on the basis of cranial features. Results of genetic analysis indicate that the snow leopard also belongs to the Panthera, a classification that was accepted by IUCN
IUCN
assessors in 2008. Only the tiger, lion, leopard, and jaguar have the anatomical structure that enables them to roar
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Eurasian Lynx
Felis
Felis
lynx Linnaeus , 1758 The EURASIAN LYNX ( Lynx
Lynx
lynx) is a medium-sized cat native to Siberia , Central , East , and Southern Asia
Southern Asia
, North , Central and Eastern Europe . It has been listed as Least Concern
Least Concern
on the IUCN Red List since 2008 as it is widely distributed, and most populations are considered stable. Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
have been re-introduced to several forested mountainous areas in Central and Southeastern Europe
Southeastern Europe
; these re-introduced subpopulations are small, less than 200 animals
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Camel
Camelus bactrianus Camelus dromedarius
Camelus dromedarius
Camelus ferus †Camelus gigas (fossil) † Camelus moreli (fossil) †Camelus sivalensis (fossil) SYNONYMS List * Camellus Molina , 1782 * Dromedarius Gloger , 1841A CAMEL is an even-toed ungulate within the genus CAMELUS, bearing distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back. The three surviving species of camel are the dromedary , or one-humped camel (C. dromedarius), which inhabits the Middle East
Middle East
and the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
; the Bactrian , or two-humped camel (C. bactrianus), which inhabits Central Asia
Central Asia
; and the critically endangered wild Bactrian camel (C. ferus) that has limited populations in remote areas of northwest China and Mongolia
Mongolia

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Donkey
The DONKEY or ASS (Equus africanus asinus) is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae
Equidae
. The wild ancestor of the donkey is the African wild ass , E. africanus. The donkey has been used as a working animal for at least 5000 years. There are more than 40 million donkeys in the world, mostly in underdeveloped countries, where they are used principally as draught or pack animals . Working donkeys are often associated with those living at or below subsistence levels. Small numbers of donkeys are kept for breeding or as pets in developed countries. A male donkey or ass is called a jack, a female a jenny or jennet; a young donkey is a foal . Jack donkeys are often used to mate with female horses to produce mules ; the biological "reciprocal" of a mule, from a stallion and jenny as its parents instead, is called a hinny
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