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Wild Horse
Below left: Equus ferus ferus
Equus ferus ferus
(tarpan) Below right: Equus ferus fossil from 9100 BCConservation statusEndangered (IUCN 3.1)[1]Scientific classification Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClass: MammaliaOrder: PerissodactylaFamily: EquidaeGenus: EquusSubgenus: EquusSpecies: E. ferusBinomial nameEquus ferus Boddaert, 1785Subspecies†Equus ferus ferus Equus ferus przewalskii Equus ferus caballusThe wild horse (Equus ferus) is a species of the genus Equus, which includes as subspecies the modern domest
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Chromosome
A chromosome (from ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA
DNA
molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism. Most eukaryotic chromosomes include packaging proteins which, aided by chaperone proteins, bind to and condense the DNA
DNA
molecule to prevent it from becoming an unmanageable tangle.[1][2] Chromosomes are normally visible under a light microscope only when the cell is undergoing the metaphase of cell division (where all chromosomes are aligned in the center of the cell in their condensed form).[3] Before this happens, every chromosome is copied once (S phase), and the copy is joined to the original by a centromere, resulting either in an X-shaped structure (pictured to the right) if the centromere is located in the middle of the chromosome or a two-arm structure if the centromere is located near one of the ends
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Eurasia
Eurasia
Eurasia
/jʊəˈreɪʒə/ is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.[3][4][5] The term is a portmanteau of its constituent continents ( Europe
Europe
and Asia)
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Gobi Desert
The Gobi Desert (/ˈɡoʊ.bi/) is a large desert region in Asia.[1] It covers parts of northern and northwestern China, and of southern Mongolia. The desert basins of the Gobi are bounded by the Altai Mountains and the grasslands and steppes of Mongolia on the north, by the Taklamakan Desert to the west, by the Hexi Corridor and Tibetan Plateau to the southwest, and by the North China Plain to the southeast
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Genus
A genus (/ˈdʒiːnəs/, pl. genera /ˈdʒɛnərə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis silvestris
Felis silvestris
are two species within the genus Felis. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae.The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Domesticated
Domestication
Domestication
is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.[1] Charles Darwin recognized the small number of traits that made domestic species different from their wild ancestors. He was also the first to recognize the difference between conscious selective breeding in which humans directly select for desirable traits, and unconscious selection where traits evolve as a by-product of natural selection or from selection on other traits.[2][3][4] There is a genetic difference between domestic and wild populations
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Dzungaria
Dzungaria (also spelled Zungaria, Dzungharia or Zungharia, Dzhungaria or Zhungaria, or Djungaria or Jungaria) is a geographical region in northwest China corresponding to the northern half of Xinjiang, also known as Beijiang (Chinese: 北疆; pinyin: Běijiāng; literally: "Northern Xinjiang").[2] Bounded by the Tian Shan mountain range to the south and the Altai Mountains to the north, it covers approximately 777,000 km2 (300,000 sq mi), extending into western Mongolia and eastern Kazakhstan
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Mongolia
Mongolia
Mongolia
/mɒŋˈɡoʊliə/ ( listen) (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; Монгол Улс in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia. Its area is roughly equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia, and that term is sometimes used to refer to the current state. It is sandwiched between China
China
to the south and Russia
Russia
to the north. Mongolia
Mongolia
does not share a border with Kazakhstan, although only 37 kilometres (23 mi) separates them. At 1,564,116 square kilometres (603,909 sq mi), Mongolia
Mongolia
is the 18th largest and the most sparsely populated fully sovereign country in the world, with a population of around 3 million people
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Ural Mountains
The Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
(Russian: Ура́льские го́ры, tr. Uralskiye gory, IPA: [ʊˈralʲskʲɪjə ˈgorɨ]), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
to the Ural River
Ural River
and northwestern Kazakhstan.[1] The mountain range forms part of the conventional boundary between the continents of Europe
Europe
and Asia. Vaygach Island
Vaygach Island
and the islands of Novaya Zemlya
Novaya Zemlya
form a further continuation of the chain to the north into the Arctic Ocean. The mountains lie within the Ural geographical region and significantly overlap with the Ural Federal District
Ural Federal District
and with the Ural economic region
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Phenotype
A phenotype (from Greek phainein, meaning 'to show', and typos, meaning 'type') is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest). A phenotype results from the expression of an organism's genetic code, its genotype, as well as the influence of environmental factors and the interactions between the two. When two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same population of a species, the species is called polymorphic
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Subspecies
In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species’s global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics.[2][3] A subspecies cannot be recognized independently. A species is either recognized as having no subspecies at all or at least two, including any that are extinct. The term is abbreviated "subsp." or "ssp."; plural: "subspecies". In zoology, under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the subspecies is the only taxonomic rank below that of species that can receive a name. In botany and mycology, under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, other infraspecific ranks, such as variety, may be named
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Foundation Bloodstock
Foundation bloodstock or foundation stock are animals that are the progenitors, or foundation, of a new breed (or crossbreed or hybrid), or of a given bloodline within such. Although usually applied to individual animals, a group of animals may be referred to collectively as foundation bloodstock when one distinct population (such a breed or a breed group) provides part of the underlying genetic base for a new distinct population. The term is particularly common in older breeds for which a written breed registry was not created until after the breed phenotype was well established. However, many modern breeds can be traced to specific, named foundation animals. The terms for foundation parents differ by sex, most commonly foundation sire for the father, and foundation dam for the mother. Depending upon the species in question, more specialized terms may be used, such as foundation mare for female horses, or foundation queen for female cats
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Colloquialism
Everyday language, everyday speech, common parlance, informal language, colloquial language, general parlance, or vernacular (but this has other meanings too), is the most used variety of a language, which is usually employed in conversation or other communication in informal situations. An example of such language is called a colloquialism, or casualism. The most common term used by dictionaries to label such an expression is colloquial. Many people however misunderstand this label and confuse it with the word local because it sounds somewhat similar[citation needed] and because informal expressions are often only used in certain regions. (But a regionalism is not the same thing as a colloquialism, and a regionalism can be local formal speech). Much of the misunderstanding is ironically caused by the dictionary label itself being formal and not part of everyday speech
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Eurasian Steppe
The Eurasian Steppe, also called the Great Steppe
Steppe
or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia
Eurasia
in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome. It stretches from Romania
Romania
and Moldova through Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Xinjiang, and Mongolia
Mongolia
to Manchuria, with one major exclave, the Pannonian steppe
Pannonian steppe
or Puszta, located mostly in Hungary.[1] Since the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
age, the Steppe
Steppe
route has connected Eastern Europe, Central Asia, China, South Asia, and the Middle East economically, politically, and culturally through overland trade routes
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Western Asia
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia
Asia
or Southwest Asia
Asia
is the westernmost subregion of Asia. The concept is in limited use, as it significantly overlaps with the Middle East
Middle East
(or the Near East), the main difference usually being the exclusion of the majority of Egypt (which would be counted as part of North Africa) and the inclusion of the Caucasus. The term is sometimes used for the purposes of grouping countries in statistics. The total population of Western Asia
Asia
is an estimated 300 million as of 2015. In an unrelated context, the term is also used in ancient history and archaeology to divide the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
into the "Asiatic" or "Western Asian" cultures as opposed to ancient Egypt
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Poltava Governorate
FlagAn old map showing the Poltava
Poltava
Governorate.Capital PoltavaHistory •  Established 27 February 1802 •  Disestablished 1 August 1925Area •  (1897) 49,365 km2 (19,060 sq mi)Population •  (1897) 2,778,151 Density 56.3 /km2  (145.8 /sq mi)Political subdivisions uezds: 15 (1803)Ukrainian administrative division just before the revolutionThe
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