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Wild Boar
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine[3] Eurasian wild pig,[4] or simply wild pig,[5] is a suid native to much of Eurasia, North Africa, and the Greater Sunda Islands. Human intervention has spread its distribution further, making the species one of the widest-ranging mammals in the world, as well as the most widely spread suiform.[4] Its wide range, high numbers, and adaptability mean that it is classed as least concern by the IUCN[1] and it has become an invasive species in part of its introduced range. The animal probably originated in Southeast Asia during the Early Pleistocene,[6] and outcompeted other suid species as it spread throughout the Old World.[7] As of 1990, up to 16 subspecies are recognized, which are divided into four regional groupings based on skull height and lacrimal bone length.[2] The species lives in matriarchal societies consisting of interrelated females and their young (both male and female)
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MtDNA
Human mitochondrial DNA
Human mitochondrial DNA
with the 37 genes on their respective H- and L-strands.Electron microscopy reveals mitochondrial DNA
DNA
in discrete foci. Bars: 200 nm. (A) Cytoplasmic section after immunogold labelling with anti-DNA; gold particles marking mt DNA
DNA
are found near the mitochondrial membrane (black dots in upper right). (B) Whole mount view of cytoplasm after extraction with CSK buffer and immunogold labelling with anti-DNA; mt DNA
DNA
(marked by gold particles) resists extraction. From Iborra et al., 2004.[2]Mitochondrial DNA
DNA
(mt DNA
DNA
or mDNA)[3] is the DNA
DNA
located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
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Lacrimal Bone
The lacrimal bone is the smallest and most fragile bone of the face; roughly the size of the little fingernail. It is situated at the front part of the medial wall of the orbit. It has two surfaces and four borders. Several bony landmarks of the lacrimal bone function in the process of lacrimation or crying. Specifically, the lacrimal bone helps form the nasolacrimal canal necessary for tear translocation. A depression on the anterior inferior portion of the bone, the lacrimal fossa, houses the membranous lacrimal sac. Tears or lacrimal fluid, from the lacrimal glands, collect in this sac during excessive lacrimation. The fluid then flows through the nasolacrimal duct and into the nasopharynx
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Greater Sunda Islands
The Greater Sunda Islands
Sunda Islands
are a group of four large islands within the Malay Archipelago. They are wholly or partly included in present-day Indonesia: Java, smallest but by far the most populous; Sumatra
Sumatra
in the west, directly across the Strait of Malacca
Strait of Malacca
from Malaysia; large Borneo, the Indonesian sector of which is called Kalimantan; and wishbone-shaped, distended Sulawesi
Sulawesi
(formerly Celebes) to the east.[1] Under some definitions, only Java, Sumatra
Sumatra
and Borneo
Borneo
are included in the Greater Sunda Islands.[2][3] Together with the Lesser Sunda Islands, they make up the Sunda Islands. Administration[edit] The Greater Sunda islands are mostly territory of Indonesia. However, the island of Borneo
Borneo
is divided among the countries of Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia
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Range (biology)
In biology, the range or distribution of a species is the geographical area within which that species can be found. Within that range, dispersion is variation in local density. The term is often qualified:Sometimes a distinction is made between a species' natural, endemic, or native range where it historically originated and lived, and the range where a species has more recently established itself
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Least Concern
A least concern (LC) species is a species which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
(IUCN) as evaluated but not qualified for any other category. As such they do not qualify as threatened, near threatened, or (before 2001) conservation dependent. Species
Species
cannot be assigned the Least Concern category unless they have had their population status evaluated. That is, adequate information is needed to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction based on its distribution or population status. Since 2001 the category has had the abbreviation "LC", following the IUCN 2001 Categories & Criteria (version 3.1).[1] However, around 20% of least concern taxa (3261 of 15636) in the IUCN database use the code "LR/lc", which indicates they have not been re-evaluated since 2000
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IUCN
The International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
(IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
and Natural Resources[2]) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, research, field projects, advocacy, and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation
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Invasive Species
An invasive species is a plant, fungus, or animal species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.[1][dubious – discuss] A study by Colautti et al. pointed out widely divergent perceptions of the criteria for invasive species among researchers (p. 135) and concerns with the subjectivity of the term "invasive" (p. 136).[2] Some of the alternate usages of the term are below:The term as most often used applies to introduced species (also called "non-indigenous" or "non-native") that adversely affect the habitats and bioregions they invade economically, environmentally, or ecologically. Such invasive species may be either plants or animals and may disrupt by dominating a region, wilderness areas, particular habitats, or wildland–urban interface land from loss of natural controls (such as predators or herbivores)
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Early Pleistocene
The Early Pleistocene
Pleistocene
(also known as the Lower Pleistocene) is a subepoch in the international geologic timescale or a subseries in chronostratigraphy, being the earliest or lowest subdivision of the Quaternary
Quaternary
period/system and Pleistocene
Pleistocene
epoch/series. It spans the time between 2.588 ± 0.005 Ma (million years ago) and 0.781 ± 0.005 Ma.[2] The Early Pleistocene
Pleistocene
consists of the Gelasian and the Calabrian ages.[3] Notes[edit]^ Fan, Junxuan; Hou, Xudong. "International Chronostratigraphic Chart". International Commission on Stratigraphy
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Old World
The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia
Asia
and Europe
Europe
(
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Subspecies
In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species’s global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics.[2][3] A subspecies cannot be recognized independently. A species is either recognized as having no subspecies at all or at least two, including any that are extinct. The term is abbreviated "subsp." or "ssp."; plural: "subspecies". In zoology, under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the subspecies is the only taxonomic rank below that of species that can receive a name. In botany and mycology, under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, other infraspecific ranks, such as variety, may be named
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Lesser Sunda Islands
The Lesser Sunda Islands
Sunda Islands
or Kepulauan Nusa Tenggara[1] or Kepulauan Sunda Kecil[2] ("Southeastern Islands") are a group of islands in Maritime Southeast Asia, north of Australia. Together with the Greater Sunda Islands
Sunda Islands
to the west they make up the Sunda Islands
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,[1] although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.[2] For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature)
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Komodo Dragon
The Komodo dragon[4] ( Varanus
Varanus
komodoensis), also known as the Komodo monitor, is a species of lizard found in the Indonesian islands of Komodo, Rinca, Flores, Gili Motang, and Padar.[5] A member of the monitor lizard family Varanidae, it is the largest living species of lizard, growing to a maximum length of 3 metres (10 ft) in rare cases and weighing up to approximately 70 kilograms (150 lb).[5] Their unusually large size has been attributed to island gigantism, since no other carnivorous animals fill the niche on the islands where they live.[6][7] However, recent resear
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Human
Homo
Homo
sapiens idaltu White et al., 2003 Homo
Homo
sapiens sapiens Homo
Homo
sapiens population densitySynonyms Species
Species
synonymy[1]aethiopicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 americanus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 arabicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 aurignacensis Klaatsch & Hauser, 1910 australasicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 cafer Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 capensis Broom, 1917 columbicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 cro-magnonensis Gregory, 1921 drennani Kleinschmidt, 1931 eurafricanus (Sergi, 1911) grimaldiensis Gregory, 1921 grimaldii Lapouge, 1906 hottentotus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 hyperboreus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 indicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 japeticus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 melaninus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 monstrosus Linnaeus, 1758 neptunianus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 palestinus McCown & Keith, 1932 patagonus Bory de St
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Big-game Hunting
Big-game hunting
Big-game hunting
is the hunting of large game, almost always large terrestrial mammals, for meat, other animal by-products (such as horn or bone), trophy or sport. The term is historically associated with the hunting of Africa's "Big Five" game (lion, African elephant, Cape buffalo, leopard and rhinoceros), and with tigers and rhinoceroses on the Indian subcontinent. Along with the big five animals, many other species are hunted including kudu, antelope, and hartebeest. Moose, elk, caribou, bison, mule deer, and white-tailed deer are the largest game hunted in North America, which is where most big-game hunting is conducted today. Big-game hunting
Big-game hunting
is conducted in Africa, North America, South America, Europe, Asia
Asia
and Australia. In Africa, lion, Cape buffalo, elephant, giraffe and other large game animals are hunted
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