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Widget (GUI)
A control element (sometimes called a control or widget) in a graphical user interface is an element of interaction, such as a button or a scroll bar. Controls are software components that a computer user interacts with through direct manipulation to read or edit information about an application. User interface libraries such as Windows Presentation Foundation, GTK+, and Cocoa, contain a collection of controls and the logic to render these.[1] Each widget facilitates a specific type of user-computer interaction, and appears as a visible part of the application's GUI as defined by the theme and rendered by the rendering engine. The theme makes all widgets adhere to a unified aesthetic design and creates a sense of overall cohesion. Some widgets support interaction with the user, for example labels, buttons, and check boxes
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Widget Engine
A software widget is a relatively simple and easy-to-use software application or component made for one or more different software platforms. A desk accessory or applet is an example of a simple, stand-alone user interface, in contrast with a more complex application such as a spreadsheet or word processor
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Project Athena
Project Athena
Project Athena
was a joint project of MIT, Digital Equipment Corporation, and IBM
IBM
to produce a campus-wide distributed computing environment for educational use. It was launched in 1983, and research and development ran until June 30, 1991, eight years after it began. As of 2017[update], Athena is still in production use at MIT. It works as software (currently a set of Debian
Debian
packages)[1] that makes a machine a thin client, that will download educational applications from the MIT servers on demand. Project Athena
Project Athena
was important in the early history of desktop and distributed computing. It created the X Window System, Kerberos, and Zephyr Notification Service
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Desktop Widget
A software widget is a relatively simple and easy-to-use software application or component made for one or more different software platforms. A desk accessory or applet is an example of a simple, stand-alone user interface, in contrast with a more complex application such as a spreadsheet or word processor
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Button (control)
A push-button (also spelled pushbutton) or simply button is a simple switch mechanism for controlling some aspect of a machine or a process. Buttons are typically made out of hard material, usually plastic or metal.[1] The surface is usually flat or shaped to accommodate the human finger or hand, so as to be easily depressed or pushed. Buttons are most often biased switches, although many un-biased buttons (due to their physical nature) still require a spring to return to their un-pushed state
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Pointer (computing WIMP)
In computing, a pointer or mouse cursor is a symbol or graphical image on the computer monitor or other display device that echoes movements of the pointing device, commonly a mouse, touchpad, or stylus pen, as part of a personal computer WIMP style of interaction.[1][2][3] It signals the point where actions of the user take place. It can be used in text-based or graphical user interfaces to select and move other elements. It is distinct from the cursor, which responds to keyboard input. The cursor may also be repositioned using the pointer. The pointer commonly appears as an angled arrow (because historically the angled shape improved appearance on low resolution screens),[4] but it can vary within different programs or operating systems. A pointer is employed when the input method, or pointing device, is a device that can move fluidly across a screen and select or highlight objects on the screen
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Virtuality
Virtual reality
Virtual reality
(VR) is a computer-generated scenario that simulates a realistic experience. The immersive environment can be similar to the real world in order to create a lifelike experience grounded in reality or sci-fi. Augmented reality
Augmented reality
systems may also be considered a form of VR that layers virtual information over a live camera feed into a headset, or through a smartphone or tablet device. Current VR technology most commonly uses virtual reality headsets or multi-projected environments, sometimes in combination with physical environments or props, to generate realistic images, sounds and other sensations that simulate a user's physical presence in a virtual or imaginary environment. A person using virtual reality equipment is able to "look around" the artificial world, move around in it, and interact with virtual features or items
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Object-oriented Programming
Object-oriented programming
Object-oriented programming
(OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self")
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Xerox Alto
The Xerox
Xerox
Alto was the first computer designed from its inception to support an operating system based on a graphical user interface (GUI), later using the desktop metaphor.[5][6] The first machines were introduced on 1 March 1973,[7] a decade before mass market GUI machines arose. The Alto uses a custom multi-chip central processing unit (CPU) filling a small cabinet, and each machine cost tens of thousands of dollars despite its status as a personal computer. Only small numbers were built initially, but by the late 1970s about 1,000 were in use at various Xerox
Xerox
labs, and about another 500 in several universities. Total production was about 2,000 systems. The Alto became well known in Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley
and its GUI was increasingly seen as the future of computing
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PARC (company)
PARC (Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated), formerly Xerox
Xerox
PARC, is a research and development company in Palo Alto, California,[1][2][3] with a distinguished reputation for its contributions to information technology and hardware systems.[citation needed] Founded in 1970 as a division of Xerox
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Software Library
In computer science, a library is a collection of non-volatile resources used by computer programs, often to develop software. These may include configuration data, documentation, help data, message templates, pre-written code and subroutines, classes, values or type specifications. In IBM's OS/360 and its successors they are referred to as partitioned data sets. A library is also a collection of implementations of behavior, written in terms of a language, that has a well-defined interface by which the behavior is invoked. For instance, people who want to write a higher level program can use a library to make system calls instead of implementing those system calls over and over again. In addition, the behavior is provided for reuse by multiple independent programs. A program invokes the library-provided behavior via a mechanism of the language
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X Toolkit Intrinsics
X Toolkit Intrinsics
X Toolkit Intrinsics
(also known as Xt, for X toolkit) is a library that implements an API to facilitate the development of programs with a graphical user interface (GUI) for the X Window System. It can be used in the C or C++
C++
languages. The low-level library Xlib
Xlib
is the client-side implementation of the X11 protocol. It communicates with an X server, but does not provide any function for implementing graphical control elements, such as e.g. buttons or menus. The Xt library provides support for creating and using graphical control elements, but does not provide any itself. Instead graphical control elements are implemented by other libraries using Xt, such as Xaw, Motif and OLIT. A programmer can for example use the Xt library to create and use a new graphical control element, e.g. a "two-side button"
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Source Code
In computing, source code is any collection of computer instructions, possibly with comments, written using[1] a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text. The source code of a program is specially designed to facilitate the work of computer programmers, who specify the actions to be performed by a computer mostly by writing source code. The source code is often transformed by an assembler or compiler into binary machine code understood by the computer. The machine code might then be stored for execution at a later time. Alternatively, source code may be interpreted and thus immediately executed. Most application software is distributed in a form that includes only executable files
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User Interface Markup Language
A user interface markup language is a markup language that renders and describes graphical user interfaces and controls. Many of these markup languages are dialects of XML
XML
and are dependent upon a pre-existing scripting language engine, usually a JavaScript
JavaScript
engine, for rendering of controls and extra scriptability. The concept of the user interface markup languages is primarily based upon the desire to prevent the "re-invention of the wheel" in the design, development and function of a user interface; such re-invention comes in the form of coding a script for the entire user interface
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What You See Is What You Get
WYSIWYG
WYSIWYG
(/ˈwɪziwɪɡ/ WIZ-ee-wig)[1] is an acronym for "what you see is what you get". In computing, a WYSIWYG
WYSIWYG
editor is a system in which content (text and graphics) can be edited in a form closely resembling its appearance when printed or displayed as a finished product,[2] such as a printed document, web page, or slide presentation.Contents1 Meaning 2 History2.1 Etymology3 Criticism 4 Related acronyms 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksMeaning[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)The program on the left uses a WYSIWYG
WYSIWYG
editor to produce a Lorem Ipsum document
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Push-button
A push-button (also spelled pushbutton) or simply button is a simple switch mechanism for controlling some aspect of a machine or a process. Buttons are typically made out of hard material, usually plastic or metal.[1] The surface is usually flat or shaped to accommodate the human finger or hand, so as to be easily depressed or pushed. Buttons are most often biased switches, although many un-biased buttons (due to their physical nature) still require a spring to return to their un-pushed state
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.