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Whyalla
Whyalla
Whyalla
/hwaɪˈælə/, founded as "Hummocks Hill" and known by that name until 1916,[5][6] is the third most populous city in the Australian state of South Australia
South Australia
after Adelaide
Adelaide
and Mount Gambier. At the 2016 Census, Whyalla
Whyalla
had an urban population of 21,751.[1] It is a seaport located on the east coast of the Eyre Peninsula
Eyre Peninsula
and is known as the "Steel City" due to its integrated steelworks and shipbuilding heritage
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Transshipment
Transshipment
Transshipment
or transhipment is the shipment of goods or containers to an intermediate destination, then to yet another destination. One possible reason for transshipment is to change the means of transport during the journey (e.g., from ship transport to road transport), known as transloading. Another reason is to combine small shipments into a large shipment (consolidation), dividing the large shipment at the other end (deconsolidation). Transshipment
Transshipment
usually takes place in transport hubs. Much international transshipment also takes place in designated customs areas, thus avoiding the need for customs checks or duties, otherwise a major hindrance for efficient transport. An item handled (from the shipper's point of view) as a single movement is not generally considered transshipped, even if it changes from one mode of transport to another at several points
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Smelter
Smelting
Smelting
is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal. It is a form of extractive metallurgy. It is used to extract many metals from their ores, including silver, iron, copper, and other base metals. Smelting
Smelting
uses heat and a chemical reducing agent to decompose the ore, driving off other elements as gases or slag and leaving the metal base behind. The reducing agent is commonly a source of carbon, such as coke—or, in earlier times, charcoal. The carbon (or carbon monoxide derived from it) removes oxygen from the ore, leaving the elemental metal. The carbon thus oxidizes in two stages, producing first carbon monoxide and then carbon dioxide
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South Australian Museum
The South Australian Museum
Museum
is a natural history museum and research institution in Adelaide, South Australia, founded in 1856.[2] It occupies a complex of buildings on North Terrace in the cultural precinct of the Adelaide
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Blast Furnace
A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper. Blast refers to the combustion air being "forced" or supplied above atmospheric pressure.[1] In a blast furnace fuel (coke), ores, and flux (limestone) are continuously supplied through the top of the furnace, while a hot blast of air (sometimes with oxygen enrichment) is blown into the lower section of the furnace through a series of pipes called tuyeres, so that the chemical reactions take place throughout the furnace as the material falls downward. The end products are usually molten metal and slag phases tapped from the bottom, and flue gases exiting from the top of the furnace
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Murray River
The Murray River
River
(or River
River
Murray[n 1]) (Ngarrindjeri: Millewa, Yorta Yorta: Tongala)[1] is Australia's longest river, at 2,508 kilometres (1,558 mi) in length.[2] The Murray rises in the Australian Alps, draining the western side of Australia's highest mountains, and then meanders across Australia's inland plains, forming the border between the states of New South Wales
New South Wales
and Victoria as it flows to the northwest into South Australia
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Shipyard
A shipyard (also called a dockyard) is a place where ships are built and repaired. These can be yachts, military vessels, cruise liners or other cargo or passenger ships. Dockyards are sometimes more associated with maintenance and basing activities than shipyards, which are sometimes associated more with initial construction. The terms are routinely used interchangeably, in part because the evolution of dockyards and shipyards has often caused them to change or merge roles. Countries with large shipbuilding industries include Croatia, China, South Korea, Japan, the Philippines, Vietnam, Singapore, France, Russia, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Ukraine, Finland, Denmark, Australia, India, Brazil, Taiwan, Romania, Poland. The shipbuilding industry tends to be more fragmented in Europe
Europe
than in Asia
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Royal Australian Navy
The Royal Australian Navy
Navy
(RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. Following the Federation of Australia
Federation of Australia
in 1901, the ships and resources of the separate colonial navies were integrated into a national force: the Commonwealth Naval Forces. Originally intended for local defence, the navy was granted the title of 'Royal Australian Navy' in 1911, and became increasingly responsible for defence of the region. Britain's Royal Navy
Navy
continued to support the RAN and provided additional blue-water defence capability in the Pacific up to the early years of World War II. Then, rapid wartime expansion saw the acquisition of large surface vessels and the building of many smaller warships
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Displaced Person
Forced displacement
Forced displacement
or forced immigration is the coerced movement of a person or persons away from their home or home region and it often connotes violent coercion. Someone who has experienced forced displacement is a "forced immigrant", a "displaced person" (DP), rarely also a "displacee", or if it is within the same country, an internally displaced person (IDP). In some cases the forced immigrant can also become a refugee, as that term has a specific legal definition. A specific form of forced displacement is population transfer, which is a coherent policy to move unwanted persons, for example, as an attempt at ethnic cleansing. Another form is deportation. Forced displacement
Forced displacement
has accompanied persecution, as well as war, throughout human history but has only become a topic of serious study and discussion relatively recently
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Seaport
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo
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2016 Australia Census
The 2016 Australian census
2016 Australian census
was the seventeenth national population census held in Australia.[2] The census was officially conducted with effect on Tuesday, 9 August 2016
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Coke (fuel)
Coke is a fuel with few impurities and a high carbon content, usually made from coal. It is the solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulphur bituminous coal. Cokes made from coal are grey, hard, and porous. While coke can be formed naturally, the commonly used form is synthetic. The form known as petroleum coke, or pet coke, is derived from oil refinery coker units or other cracking processes. Coke is used in preparation of producer gas which is a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen (N2). Producer gas is produced by passing air over red-hot coke
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Flux (metallurgy)
In metallurgy, a flux (derived from Latin fluxus meaning “flow”) is a chemical cleaning agent, flowing agent, or purifying agent. Fluxes may have more than one function at a time. They are used in both extractive metallurgy and metal joining. Some of the earliest known fluxes were carbonate of soda, potash, charcoal, coke, borax,[1] lime,[2] lead sulfide[3] and certain minerals containing phosphorus. Iron
Iron
ore was also used as a flux in the smelting of copper. These agents served various functions, the simplest being a reducing agent, which prevented oxides from forming on the surface of the molten metal, while others absorbed impurities into the slag, which could be scraped off the molten metal. As cleaning agents, fluxes facilitate soldering, brazing, and welding by removing oxidation from the metals to be joined
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Divisions Of The Australian House Of Representatives
In Australia, electoral districts for the Australian House of Representatives are called divisions or more commonly referred to as electorates or seats. There are currently 150 single-member electorates for the Australian House of Representatives.Contents1 Constitutional and legal requirements 2 Apportionment 3 Naming 4 List of Divisions in 20164.1 New South Wales 4.2 Victoria 4.3 Queensland 4.4 Western Australia 4.5 South Australia 4.6 Tasmania 4.7 Australian Capital Territory 4.8 Northern Territory5 Abolished Divisions 6 See also 7 External links 8 ReferencesConstitutional and legal requirements[edit] Section 24 of the Constitution of Australia
Australia
requires that the total number of members of the Australian House of Representatives
Australian House of Representatives
shall be "as nearly as practicable" twice as many as the number of members of the Australian Senate
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