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White Brazilian
PortugueseMinorities speak assorted languages and dialects, such as Riograndenser Hunsrückisch (a German dialect with co-official status, spoken by 1.94%),[2][3][4] Talian (a Venetian dialect
Venetian dialect
spoken by 1.49%)[5][6] Polish,;[7][8][9] Other smaller minorities include:Ukrainian,[9][10] Dutch,[9][11] East Pomeranian[12] and Plautdietsch[13][14] (both East
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Yiddish
Yiddish
Yiddish
(ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, lit. "Jewish", pronounced [ˈjɪdɪʃ] [ˈɪdɪʃ]; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, lit. Judaeo-German)[3] is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews. It originated during the 9th century[4] in Central Europe, providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with a High German-based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic as well as from Slavic languages
Slavic languages
and traces of Romance languages.[5][6] Yiddish
Yiddish
is written with a fully vocalized version of the Hebrew alphabet. The earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז‎ (loshn-ashknaz, "language of Ashkenaz") or טײַטש‎ (taytsh), a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German
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Russian Language
Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularly in Eastern Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and Central Asia). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states.[31][32] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(which in turn is part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch)
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Volga German
The Volga Germans
Germans
(German: Wolgadeutsche or Russlanddeutsche, Russian: Поволжские немцы, tr. Povolzhskiye nemtsy) are ethnic Germans
Germans
who colonized and historically lived along the Volga River
Volga River
in the region of southeastern European Russia
Russia
around Saratov
Saratov
and to the south. Recruited as immigrants to Russia
Russia
in the 18th century, they were allowed to maintain their German culture, language, traditions, and churches (Lutheran, Reformed, Catholics, Moravians, and Mennonites)
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Levant
 Cyprus  Israel  Iraq  Jordan  Lebanon  Palestine  Syria   Turkey
Turkey
(Hatay Province)Broader definition Egypt  Greece   Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
(Libya)   Turkey
Turkey
(whole territory)Population 44,550,926[a]Demonym LevantineLanguages Levantine Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, Armenian, Circassian, Greek, Kurdish, Ladino, Turkish, DomariTime Zones UTC+02:00 (EET) ( Turkey
Turkey
and Cyprus)Largest citiesDamascus Amman Aleppo Baghdad Beirut Gaza Jerusalem Tel AvivThe Levant
Levant
(/ləˈvænt/) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean. In its narrowest sense it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria
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European Diaspora
European emigration
European emigration
can be defined as subsequent emigration waves from the European continent to other continents. The origins of the various European diasporas can be traced to the people, who left the European nation states or stateless ethnic communities on the European continent.[23] It must be noted that the use of the term "diaspora" in reference to people of European national or ethnic origins is controversial, because the concept itself is contested and debated.[24] From 1815 to 1932, 60 million people left Europe (with many returning home), primarily to "areas of European settlement" in the Americas
Americas
(especially to the United States, Canada, Brazil, the Southern Cone
Southern Cone
such as Argentina, and Uruguay[23]), Australia,[25] New Zealand and Siberia.[26] These populations also multiplied rapidly in their new habitat; much more so than the populations of Africa and Asia
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Slavs
Slavs
Slavs
are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages
Slavic languages
of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe
Europe
all the way north and westwards to Northeast Europe
Europe
, Northern Asia (Siberia), the Caucasus, and Central Asia (especially Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Turkmenistan) as well as historically in Western Europe
Europe
(particularly in East Germany) and Western Asia (including Anatolia)
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Hebrew
Hebrew (/ˈhiːbruː/; עִבְרִית, Ivrit [ʔivˈʁit] ( listen) or [ʕivˈɾit] ( listen)) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide.[8][9] Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites
Israelites
and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh.[note 1] The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE.[10] Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family
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Balts
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Alemannic German
Alemannic (German:  Alemannisch (help·info)) is a group of dialects of the Upper German
Upper German
branch of the Germanic language
Germanic language
family. The name deriv
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Swabian German
Swabian ( Schwäbisch (help·info)) is one of the dialect groups of Alemannic German
Alemannic German
that belong to the High German dialect continuum. It is spoken in Swabia, which covers much of the southwestern German state of Baden-Württemberg, including its capital, Stuttgart. It is also spoken in the rural area known as the Swabian Alb, and in the southwest of Bavarian Swabia
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Austrian German
Austrian German[2] (German: Österreichisches Deutsch), Austrian Standard German,[3][4] Standard Austrian German[5] (German: Österreichisches Standarddeutsch) or Austrian High German[2][6] (German: Österreichisches Hochdeutsch), is the variety of Standard German written and spoken in Austria. It has the highest sociolinguistic prestige locally, as it is the variation used in the media and for other formal situations. In Germany, however, Standard Austrian German
Austrian German
is still confused with some regional standard that is not considered "pure".[7][8]
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High Alemannic
High Alemannic is a dialect of Alemannic German
Alemannic German
spoken in the westernmost Austrian state
Austrian state
of Voralberg, on the border with
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Vorarlbergerisch
High Alemannic is a dialect of Alemannic German spoken in the westernmost Austrian state of Voralberg, on the border with Switzerland and Liechtenstein.Contents1 Language area 2 Subdivision 3 Features 4 ReferencesLanguage area[edit] The High Alemannic dialects are spoken in Liechtenstein and in most of German-speaking Switzerland (Swiss Plateau), except for the Highest Alemannic dialects in the Swiss Alps and for the Low Alemannic (Basel German) dialect in the North West. Therefore, High Alemannic must not be confused with the term "Swiss German", which refers to all Alemannic dialects of Switzerland as opposed to Swiss variant of Standard German, the literary language of diglossic German-speaking Switzerland. In Germany, High Alemannic dialects are spoken in Southern Baden-Württemberg, i.e. the Markgräflerland and in the adjacent area south of Freiburg im Breisgau up to the Black Forest (Schönau)
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Swiss German
Swiss German
Swiss German
(Standard German: Schweizerdeutsch, Alemannic German: Schwyzerdütsch, Schwiizertüütsch, Schwizertitsch,[note 1] and others) is any of the Alemannic dialects spoken in the German-speaking part of Switzerland
Switzerland
and in some Alpine communities in Northern Italy bordering Switzerland. Occasionally, the Alemannic dialects spoken in other countries are grouped together with Swiss German, as well, especially the dialects of Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
and Austrian Vorarlberg, which are closely associated to Switzerland's.[citation needed] Linguistically, Swiss German
Swiss German
forms no unity. The linguistic division of Alemannic is rather into Low, High and Highest Alemannic, varieties of all of which are spoken both inside and outside Switzerland
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Highest Alemannic
Highest Alemannic (Hegschtalemannisch) is a branch of Alemannic German and is often considered to be part of the German language, even though mutual intelligibility with Standard German
Standard German
and other non-Alemannic German dialects is very limited. Highest Alemannic dialects are spoken in alpine regions of Switzerland: In the Bernese Oberland, in the German-speaking parts of the Canton of Fribourg, in the Valais
Valais
(see Walliser German) and in the Walser
Walser
settlements (mostly in Switzerland, but also in Italy
Italy
and in Austria; see Walser
Walser
German). In the West, the South and the South-East, they are surrounded by Romance languages; in the North, by High Alemannic dialects
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