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Westminster Confession
The WESTMINSTER CONFESSION OF FAITH is a Reformed confession of faith . Drawn up by the 1646 Westminster Assembly
Westminster Assembly
as part of the Westminster Standards to be a confession of the Church of England
Church of England
, it became and remains the "subordinate standard " of doctrine in the Church of Scotland
Scotland
and has been influential within Presbyterian
Presbyterian
churches worldwide. In 1643, the English Parliament called upon "learned, godly and judicious Divines", to meet at Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
in order to provide advice on issues of worship, doctrine, government and discipline of the Church of England. Their meetings, over a period of five years, produced the confession of faith, as well as a Larger Catechism and a Shorter Catechism
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John Knox
JOHN KNOX (c. 1513 – 24 November 1572) was a Scottish minister , theologian , and writer who was a leader of the Reformation . He is the founder of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland
Church of Scotland
. He is believed to have been educated at the University of St Andrews and worked as a notary-priest. Influenced by early church reformers such as George Wishart , he joined the movement to reform the Scottish church . He was caught up in the ecclesiastical and political events that involved the murder of Cardinal Beaton in 1546 and the intervention of the regent of Scotland Mary of Guise , a French noblewoman. He was taken prisoner by French forces the following year and exiled to England on his release in 1549
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Theodore Beza
THEODORE BEZA (Latin : Theodorus Beza; French : Théodore de Bèze or de Besze; June 24, 1519 – October 13, 1605) was a French Protestant Christian
Christian
theologian and scholar who played an important role in the Reformation . A member of the monarchomaque movement who opposed absolute monarchy , he was a disciple of John Calvin
John Calvin
and lived most of his life in Switzerland
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Francis Turretin
FRANCIS TURRETIN (17 October 1623 – 28 September 1687; also known as FRANçOIS TURRETINI and FRANCIS TURRETTIN) was a Swiss-Italian Reformed scholastic theologian. Turretin is especially known as a zealous opponent of the theology of the Academy of Saumur (embodied by Moise Amyraut and called Amyraldianism ), as an earnest defender of the Calvinistic orthodoxy represented by the Synod of Dort , and as one of the authors of the Helvetic Consensus , which defended the formulation of predestination from the Synod of Dort and the verbal inspiration of the Bible
Bible
. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Works * 3 Free Choice * 4 English translations * 5 Notes * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links LIFEHe was the grandson of Francesco Turrettini, who left his native Lucca
Lucca
in 1574 and settled in Geneva in 1592
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Heinrich Bullinger
HEINRICH BULLINGER (18 July 1504 – 17 September 1575) was a Swiss reformer , the successor of Huldrych Zwingli as head of the Zurich church and pastor at Grossmünster . A much less controversial figure than John Calvin
John Calvin
or Martin Luther
Martin Luther
, his importance has long been underestimated; recent research shows that he was one of the most influential theologians of the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
in the 16th century. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Studies * 3 Kappel ministry begins (1523–1528) * 4 Bremgarten Ministry (1529–1531) * 5 Second Helvetic Confession * 5.1 Marian views * 6 Works * 6.1 Theological works * 6.2 Historical * 6.3 Letters * 7 References * 8 External links EARLY LIFE This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION
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William Farel
WILLIAM FAREL (1489 – 13 September 1565), GUILHEM FAREL or GUILLAUME FAREL (French: ), was a French evangelist , and a founder of the Reformed
Reformed
Church in the cantons of Neuchâtel , Berne , Geneva
Geneva
, and Vaud in Switzerland
Switzerland
. He is most often remembered for having persuaded John Calvin
John Calvin
to remain in Geneva
Geneva
in 1536, and for persuading him to return there in 1541, after their expulsion in 1538. They influenced the government of Geneva
Geneva
to the point that it became the " Protestant
Protestant
Rome" , where Protestants took refuge and non-Protestants were driven out. Together with Calvin, Farel worked to train missionary preachers who spread the Protestant
Protestant
cause to other countries, and especially to France
France

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Martin Bucer
MARTIN BUCER (early German : Martin Butzer) (11 November 1491 – 28 February 1551) was a German Protestant
Protestant
reformer based in Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran , Calvinist
Calvinist
, and Anglican
Anglican
doctrines and practices. Bucer was originally a member of the Dominican Order
Dominican Order
, but after meeting and being influenced by Martin Luther
Martin Luther
in 1518 he arranged for his monastic vows to be annulled. He then began to work for the Reformation
Reformation
, with the support of Franz von Sickingen . Bucer's efforts to reform the church in Wissembourg resulted in his excommunication from the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
, and he was forced to flee to Strasbourg
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Peter Martyr Vermigli
PETER MARTYR VERMIGLI (8 September 1499 – 12 November 1562) was an Italian-born Reformed theologian. His early work as a reformer in Catholic Italy and decision to flee for Protestant northern Europe influenced many other Italians to convert and flee as well. In England, he influenced the Edwardian Reformation, including the Eucharistic service of the 1552 Book of Common Prayer
Book of Common Prayer
. He was considered an authority on the Eucharist
Eucharist
among the Reformed churches, and engaged in controversies on the subject by writing treatises. Vermigli's Loci Communes, a compilation of excerpts from his biblical commentaries organized by the topics of systematic theology , became a standard Reformed theological textbook. Born in Florence
Florence
, Vermigli entered a religious order and was appointed to influential posts as abbot and prior
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Jonathan Edwards (theologian)
JONATHAN EDWARDS (October 5, 1703 – March 22, 1758) was an American revivalist preacher, philosopher, and Congregationalist Protestant theologian. Like most of the Puritans , he held to the Reformed theology . His colonial followers later distinguished themselves from other Congregationalists as "New Lights" (endorsing the Great Awakening), as opposed to "Old Lights" (non-revivalists). Edwards is widely regarded as "one of America's most important and original philosophical theologians". Edwards' theological work is broad in scope, but he was rooted in Reformed
Reformed
theology , the metaphysics of theological determinism, and the Puritan
Puritan
heritage. Recent studies have emphasized how thoroughly Edwards grounded his life's work on conceptions of beauty, harmony, and ethical fittingness, and how central The Enlightenment was to his mindset
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Continental Reformed Church
A CONTINENTAL REFORMED CHURCH is a Reformed
Reformed
church that has its origin in the European continent. Prominent subgroups are the Dutch Reformed
Reformed
, the Swiss Reformed
Reformed
, the French Reformed
Reformed
( Huguenots
Huguenots
), the Hungarian Reformed
Reformed
, and the Waldensian Church in Italy. The term is used to distinguish these churches from Presbyterian
Presbyterian
, Congregational or other Calvinist churches, which can trace their origin to the British Isles or elsewhere in the world. Continental Reformed
Reformed
churches are descended from the Protestant Reformation
Reformation
in respective European countries
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Pilgrims (Plymouth Colony)
The PILGRIMS or PILGRIM FATHERS were early European settlers of the Plymouth Colony
Plymouth Colony
in present-day Plymouth, Massachusetts , United States. The Pilgrims' leadership came from the religious congregations of Brownist English Dissenters
English Dissenters
who had fled the volatile political environment in England for the relative calm and tolerance of 16th–17th century Holland
Holland
in the Netherlands
Netherlands
. The Pilgrims held Puritan
Puritan
Calvinist
Calvinist
religious beliefs but, unlike other Puritans , they maintained that their congregations needed to be separated from the English state church
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World Communion Of Reformed Churches
The WORLD COMMUNION OF REFORMED CHURCHES (WCRC) is the largest association of Reformed churches in the world and the fifth largest Christian
Christian
communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
, the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
, the Anglican Communion
Anglican Communion
and the World Methodist Council . It has 229 member denominations in 108 countries, together claiming 80 million people. This ecumenical Christian
Christian
body was formed in June 2010 by the union of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches (WARC) and the Reformed Ecumenical Council (REC)
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International Conference Of Reformed Churches
The INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF REFORMED CHURCHES (ICRC) is a federation of Reformed or Calvinist churches across the world. Its theology is more conservative than the larger World Communion of Reformed Churches and is similar to that of the World Reformed Fellowship
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Huguenot
HUGUENOTS (English pronunciation /ˈhjuːɡənɒt/ or /ˈhjuːɡənoʊ/ ; French : Les huguenots, ) are the ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition . The term was used frequently to describe members of the Reformed Church of France
France
until the beginning of the 19th century. The term has its origin in 16th-century France. Huguenots were French Protestants mainly from northern France, who were inspired by the writings of John Calvin and endorsed the Reformed tradition of Protestantism, contrary to the largely German Lutheran population of Alsace
Alsace
, Moselle , and Montbéliard . Hans Hillerbrand in his Encyclopedia of Protestantism claims the Huguenot
Huguenot
community reached as much as 10% of the French population on the eve of the St
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Afrikaner Calvinism
AFRIKANER CALVINISM is a theoretical cultural and religious development among Afrikaners that combined elements of seventeenth-century Calvinist
Calvinist
doctrine with a "chosen people" ideology similar to that espoused by proponents of the Jewish nation movement. A number of modern studies have argued that this gave rise to the Great Trek while serving to legimitise the subordination of other South African ethnic groups, thus laying the foundation for modern Afrikaner
Afrikaner
nationalism and apartheid . Dissenting scholars have asserted that Calvinism
Calvinism
did not in fact play a significant role in Afrikaner
Afrikaner
society until the trauma of the Second Boer War
Second Boer War
, citing the fact that early settlers dwelt in isolated frontier conditions and lived much closer to pseudo-Christian animist beliefs than organised religion
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Reformed Baptists
REFORMED BAPTISTS (sometimes known as PARTICULAR BAPTISTS or CALVINISTIC BAPTISTS ) are Baptists
Baptists
that hold to a Calvinist soteriology . They can trace their history through the early modern Particular Baptists
Baptists
of England
England
. The first Reformed Baptist church was formed in the 1630s. The 1689 Baptist Confession of Faith was written along Reformed Baptist lines
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