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Westminster Confession
The Westminster Confession of Faith
Westminster Confession of Faith
is a Reformed confession of faith. Drawn up by the 1646 Westminster Assembly
Westminster Assembly
as part of the Westminster Standards to be a confession of the Church of England, it became and remains the "subordinate standard" of doctrine in the Church of Scotland
Scotland
and has been influential within Presbyterian
Presbyterian
churches worldwide. In 1643, the English Parliament called upon "learned, godly and judicious Divines", to meet at Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
in order to provide advice on issues of worship, doctrine, government and discipline of the Church of England. Their meetings, over a period of five years, produced the confession of faith, as well as a Larger Catechism and a Shorter Catechism
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Wikisource
Wikisource
Wikisource
is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikisource
Wikisource
is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project (each instance usually representing a different language); multiple Wikisources make up the overall project of Wikisource. The project's aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts (its first text was the Déclaration universelle des Droits de l'Homme), it has expanded to become a general-content library. The project officially began in November 24, 2003 under the name Project Sourceberg, a play on the famous Project Gutenberg. The name Wikisource
Wikisource
was adopted later that year and it received its own domain name seven months later
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William Farel
William Farel
William Farel
(1489 – 13 September 1565), Guilhem Farel or Guillaume Farel (French: [gijom faʁɛl]), was a French evangelist, and a founder of the Reformed
Reformed
Church in the cantons of Neuchâtel, Berne, Geneva, and Vaud in Switzerland. He is most often remembered for having persuaded John Calvin
John Calvin
to remain in Geneva
Geneva
in 1536,[1] and for persuading him to return there in 1541,[2] after their expulsion in 1538
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World Communion Of Reformed Churches
The World Communion of Reformed Churches
World Communion of Reformed Churches
(WCRC) is the largest association of Reformed churches
Reformed churches
in the world
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First Helvetic Confession
A confession is a statement – made by a person or by a group of persons – acknowledging some personal fact that the person (or the group) would ostensibly prefer to keep hidden. The term presumes that the speaker is providing information that he believes the other party is not already aware of,[1] and is frequently associated with an admission of a moral or legal wrong:In one sense it is the acknowledgment of having done something wrong, whether on purpose or not. Thus confessional texts usually provide information of a private nature previously unavailable. What a sinner tells a priest in the confessional, the documents criminals sign acknowledging what they have done, an autobiography in which the author acknowledges mistakes, and so on, are all examples of confessional texts.[2]Not all confessions reveal wrongdoing, however
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Pilgrims (Plymouth Colony)
The Pilgrims or Pilgrim
Pilgrim
Fathers were early European settlers of the Plymouth Colony
Plymouth Colony
in present-day Plymouth, Massachusetts, United States. The Pilgrims' leadership came from the religious congregations of Brownist separatist Puritans
Puritans
who had fled the volatile political environment in England
England
for the relative calm and tolerance of 17th-century Holland
Holland
in the Netherlands. They held Puritan
Puritan
Calvinist religious beliefs but, unlike other Puritans, they maintained that their congregations needed to be separated from the English state church. They were also concerned that they might lose their English cultural identity if they remained in the Netherlands, so they arranged with English investors to establish a new colony in North America
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Huldrych Zwingli
Huldrych Zwingli[a] or Ulrich Zwingli[b] (1 January 1484 – 11 October 1531) was a leader of the Reformation
Reformation
in Switzerland. Born during a time of emerging Swiss patriotism and increasing criticism of the Swiss mercenary system, he attended the University of Vienna
University of Vienna
and the University of Basel, a scholarly center of Renaissance humanism. He continued his studies while he served as a pastor in Glarus
Glarus
and later in Einsiedeln, where he was influenced by the writings of Erasmus. In 1519, Zwingli became the pastor of the Grossmünster
Grossmünster
in Zurich where he began to preach ideas on reform of the Catholic Church. In his first public controversy in 1522, he attacked the custom of fasting during Lent
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Martin Bucer
Martin Bucer
Martin Bucer
(early German: Martin Butzer[1][2][a]; 11 November 1491 – 28 February 1551) was a German Protestant
Protestant
reformer based in Strasbourg
Strasbourg
who influenced Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican doctrines and practices. Bucer was originally a member of the Dominican Order, but after meeting and being influenced by Martin Luther in 1518 he arranged for his monastic vows to be annulled. He then began to work for the Reformation, with the support of Franz von Sickingen. Bucer's efforts to reform the church in Wissembourg
Wissembourg
resulted in his excommunication from the Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church, and he was forced to flee to Strasbourg. There he joined a team of reformers which included Matthew Zell, Wolfgang Capito, and Caspar Hedio
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Peter Martyr Vermigli
Peter Martyr Vermigli[b] (8 September 1499 – 12 November 1562) was an Italian-born Reformed theologian. His early work as a reformer in Catholic Italy
Italy
and his decision to flee for Protestant northern Europe influenced many other Italians to convert and flee as well. In England, he influenced the Edwardian Reformation, including the Eucharistic service of the 1552 Book of Common Prayer. He was considered an authority on the Eucharist
Eucharist
among the Reformed churches, and engaged in controversies on the subject by writing treatises. Vermigli's Loci Communes, a compilation of excerpts from his biblical commentaries organized by the topics of systematic theology, became a standard Reformed theological textbook. Born in Florence, Vermigli entered a religious order and was appointed to influential posts as abbot and prior
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Heinrich Bullinger
Heinrich Bullinger
Heinrich Bullinger
(18 July 1504 – 17 September 1575) was a Swiss reformer, the successor of Huldrych Zwingli
Huldrych Zwingli
as head of the Zurich church and pastor at Grossmünster. A much less controversial figure than John Calvin
John Calvin
or Martin Luther, his importance has long been underestimated; recent research shows that he was one of the most influential theologians of the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
in the 16th century.[citation needed]Contents1 Early life 2 Studies 3 Kappel ministry begins (1523–1528) 4 Bremgarten Ministry (1529–1531) 5 Second Helvetic Confession5.1 Marian views6 Works6.1 Theological works 6.2 Historical 6.3 Letters7 References 8 External linksEarly life[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification
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Afrikaner Calvinism
Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Calvinism
Calvinism
is a theoretical cultural and religious development among
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John Knox
John Knox
John Knox
(c. 1513 – 24 November 1572) was a Scottish minister, theologian, and writer who was a leader of the country's Reformation. He is the founder of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. Born in Giffordgate, Knox is believed to have been educated at the University of St Andrews
University of St Andrews
and worked as a notary-priest. Influenced by early church reformers such as George Wishart, he joined the movement to reform the Scottish church. He was caught up in the ecclesiastical and political events that involved the murder of Cardinal David Beaton in 1546 and the intervention of the regent of Scotland
Scotland
Mary of Guise, a French noblewoman
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Theodore Beza
Theodore Beza
Theodore Beza
(Latin: Theodorus Beza; French: Théodore de Bèze or de Besze; June 24, 1519 – October 13, 1605) was a French Protestant Christian
Christian
theologian and scholar who played an important role in the Reformation. He was a disciple of John Calvin
John Calvin
and lived most of his life in Geneva.Contents1 Biography1.1 Early life 1.2 Teacher at Lausanne 1.3 Journeys on behalf of the Protestants 1.4 Settles in Geneva 1.5 Events of 1560–63 1.6 Calvin's successor 1.7 Course of events after 1564 1.8 The Colloquy of Montbéliard 1.9 Last days2 Literary works2.1 Humanistic and historical writings 2.2 Theological works 2.3 Beza's Greek New Testament3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] Early life[edit] Theodore Beza
Theodore Beza
was born at Vézelay, in Burgundy, France
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Francis Turretin
Francis Turretin
Francis Turretin
(17 October 1623 – 28 September 1687; also known as François Turretini and Francis Turrettin) was a Genevan-Italian Reformed scholastic
Reformed scholastic
theologian. Turretin is especially known as a zealous opponent of the theology of the Academy of Saumur (embodied by Moise Amyraut
Moise Amyraut
and called Amyraldianism), as an earnest defender of the Calvinistic orthodoxy represented by the Synod of Dort, and as one of the authors of the Helvetic Consensus, which defended the formulation of predestination from the Synod of Dort
Synod of Dort
and the verbal inspiration of the Bible.Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 Free Choice 4 English translations 5 Notes 6 Bibliography 7 External linksLife[edit] He was the grandson of Francesco Turrettini, who left his native Lucca in 1574 and settled in Geneva in 1592
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Jonathan Edwards (theologian)
Jonathan Edwards (October 5, 1703 – March 22, 1758) was an American revivalist preacher, philosopher, and Congregationalist Protestant theologian. Like most of the Puritans, he held to the Reformed theology. His colonial followers later distinguished themselves from other Congregationalists as "New Lights" (endorsing the Great Awakening), as opposed to "Old Lights" (non-revivalists). Edwards is widely regarded as "one of America's most important and original philosophical theologians". Edwards' theological work is broad in scope, but he was rooted in Reformed
Reformed
theology, the metaphysics of theological determinism, and the Puritan
Puritan
heritage
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Continental Reformed Church
A Continental Reformed
Reformed
church is a Reformed
Reformed
church that has its origin in the European continent. Prominent subgroups are the Dutch Reformed, the Swiss Reformed, the French Reformed
Reformed
(Huguenots), the Hungarian Reformed, and the Waldensian Church in Italy. The term is used to distinguish these churches from Presbyterian, Congregational or other Calvinist churches, which can trace their origin to the British Isles or elsewhere in the world. Continental Reformed
Reformed
churches are descended from the Protestant Reformation
Reformation
in respective European countries. Notably, their theology is largely derived from the Swiss Reformation, as Switzerland (specifically Geneva
Geneva
and Zürich) was a base for the most influential Reformed theologians of the era
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