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Western Monasticism
Christian monasticism
Christian monasticism
is the devotional practice of individuals who live ascetic and typically cloistered lives that are dedicated to Christian worship. It began to develop early in the history of the Christian Church, modeled upon scriptural examples and ideals, including those in the Old Testament, but not mandated as an institution in the scriptures. It has come to be regulated by religious rules (e.g. the Rule of Saint Augustine, Anthony the Great, St Pachomius, the Rule of St Basil, the Rule of St Benedict,) and, in modern times, the Canon law
Canon law
of the respective Christian denominations that have forms of monastic living. Those living the monastic life are known by the generic terms monks (men) and nuns (women)
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Christian Church
The Christian
Christian
Church is an ecclesiological term generally used by Protestants to refer to the whole group of people belonging to the Christianity
Christianity
throughout history. In this understanding, the "Christian Church" does not refer to a particular Christian denomination
Christian denomination
but to the body of all believers. Some Christian
Christian
traditions, however, believe that the term " Christian
Christian
Church" or "Church" applies only to a specific historic Christian
Christian
body or institution (e.g., the Catholic Church, the Orthodox Church, the Non-Chalcedonian Churches of Oriental Orthodoxy, or the Assyrian Church of the East)
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John The Baptist
John the Baptist
John the Baptist
(Hebrew: יוחנן המטביל‎, Ancient Greek: Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs or Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτίζων, Iōánnēs ho baptízōn,[5][6][7][8][9], Coptic: ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲡⲣⲟⲇⲣⲟⲙⲟⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ ⲡⲓⲣϥϯⲱⲙⲥ[10], Arabic: يحيى‎, translit. Yaḥyā[11]) was a Jewish
Jewish
itinerant preacher[12] in the early first century AD. John is revered as a major religious figure[13] in Christianity, Islam, the Bahá'í Faith,[14] and Mandaeism. He is called a prophet by all of these traditions, and is honored as a saint in many Christian
Christian
traditions. Other titles for John include John the Forerunner in Eastern Christianity
Christianity
and "the prophet John" (Yaḥyā) in Islam
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State Of Perfection
In Christianity, the term state is used in various senses by theologians and spiritual writers.[1] The word is used in the classification of the degrees or stages of Christian perfection, or the advancement of souls in the supernatural life of grace during their sojourn in the world. This has reference to the practice of all the virtues, both theological virtues and moral virtues, and to all their acts both external and internal
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Philokalia
The Philokalia
Philokalia
(Ancient Greek: φιλοκαλία "love of the beautiful, the good", from φιλία philia "love" and κάλλος kallos "beauty") is "a collection of texts written between the 4th and 15th centuries by spiritual masters"[1] of the Eastern Orthodox Church mystical hesychast tradition. They were originally written for the guidance and instruction of monks in "the practice of the contemplative life."[2] The collection was compiled in the eighteenth century by St. Nikodemos of the Holy Mountain and St. Makarios of Corinth. Although these works were individually known in the monastic culture of Greek Orthodox Christianity
Christianity
before their inclusion in the Philokalia, their presence in this collection resulted in a much wider readership due to its translation into several languages
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Evangelical Counsels
Portals: Christianity
Christianity
Bible  Book:Life of Jesusv t eThe three evangelical counsels or counsels of perfection in Christianity
Christianity
are chastity, poverty (or perfect charity), and obedience.[1] As Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth stated in the Canonical gospels,[2] they are counsels for those who desire to become "perfect" (τελειος, cf. Matthew 19:21, see also Strong's G5046 and Imitatio dei). The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
interprets this to mean that they are not binding upon all and hence not necessary conditions to attain eternal life (heaven)
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Poverty
Poverty
Poverty
is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money. Poverty
Poverty
is a multifaceted concept, which may include social, economic, and political elements
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Chastity
Chastity
Chastity
is sexual conduct of a person that is deemed praiseworthy and virtuous according to the moral standards and guidelines of their culture, civilization or religion. The term has become closely associated (and is often used interchangeably) with sexual abstinence, especially before marriage and outside marriage.[1][2]Contents1 Etymology 2 In Abrahamic religions2.1 Christianity 2.2 Islam 2.3 Bahá'í Faith3 In Eastern religions3.1 Hinduism 3.2 Sikhism 3.3 Jainism 3.4 Buddhism 3.5 Daoism4 See also 5 References 6 External linksEtymology[edit] The words "chaste" and "chastity" stem from the Latin
Latin
adjective castus meaning "pure". The words entered the English language around the middle of the 13th century; at that time they meant slightly different things
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Vow Of Obedience
The Vow of Obedience in Catholicism
Catholicism
concerns one of the three counsels of perfection. It forms part of the vows that Christian monks and nuns must make to enter the consecrated life, whether as a member of a religious institute living in community or as consecrated hermit. Description[edit] This is stipulated inthe candidate's respective Church law, for example in the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
the Code of Canon Law
Code of Canon Law
(see canons 573, 601), and the candidate's respective rule, for example for those that are to be received into a Benedictine
Benedictine
monastic community the Rule of St Benedict (ch
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Essenes
The Essenes
Essenes
(in Modern Hebrew: אִסִּיִים‬, Isiyim; Greek: Ἐσσηνοί, Ἐσσαῖοι, or Ὀσσαῖοι, Essenoi, Essaioi, Ossaioi) were a sect of Second Temple Judaism
Judaism
which flourished from the 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD. The Jewish historian Josephus
Josephus
records that Essenes
Essenes
existed in large numbers, and thousands lived throughout Roman Judaea, but they were fewer in number than the Pharisees
Pharisees
and the Sadducees, the other two major sects at the time. The Essenes
Essenes
lived in various cities but congregated in communal life dedicated to asceticism (some groups practised celibacy), voluntary poverty, and daily immersion. Many separate but related religious groups of that era shared similar mystic, eschatological, messianic, and ascetic beliefs
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Therapeutae
The Therapeutae
Therapeutae
were a Jewish sect which flourished in Alexandria
Alexandria
and other parts of the Diaspora
Diaspora
of Hellenistic Judaism
Hellenistic Judaism
in the final years of the Second Temple period. The primary source concerning the Therapeutae
Therapeutae
is the account De vita contemplativa ("The Contemplative Life"), purportedly by the Jewish philosopher Philo
Philo
of Alexandria
Alexandria
(c. 20 BCE – 50 CE). The authorship has been called into question because of the different stance on Greek philosophy of this work from that of other works that were written by Philo
Philo
and because elsewhere Philo
Philo
makes no mention of the Therapeutae[1] although this article will refer to the author as Philo
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Elijah
Elijah
Elijah
(/ɪˈlaɪdʒə/; ih-LY-jə; Hebrew: אֱלִיָּהוּ‬, Eliyahu, meaning "My God
God
is Yahu/Jah"[1][2]) or Elias
Elias
(/ɪˈlaɪəs/ ih-LY-əs; Greek: Ἡλίας Elías; Syriac: ܐܸܠܝܼܵܐ‎ Elyāe; Arabic: إلياس or إليا, Ilyās or Ilyā) was a prophet and a miracle worker who lived in the northern kingdom of Israel[3] during the reign of King Ahab
King Ahab
(9th century BC), according to the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible. In 1 Kings 18, Elijah
Elijah
defended the worship of the Jewish God
God
over that of the Canaanite deity Baal
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Carmelites
The Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary
Blessed Virgin Mary
of Mount Carmel or Carmelites
Carmelites
(so
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Jesus
Jesus[e] (c. 4 BC – c. AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth
Nazareth
and Jesus
Jesus
Christ,[f] was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.[12] He is the central figure of Christianity
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Icon
An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn "image") is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, and certain Eastern Catholic
Eastern Catholic
churches. The most common subjects include Christ, Mary, saints and/or angels. Though especially associated with "portrait" style images concentrating on one or two main figures, the term also covers most religious images in a variety of artistic media produced by Eastern Christianity, including narrative scenes. Icons may also be cast in metal, carved in stone, embroidered on cloth, painted on wood, done in mosaic or fresco work, printed on paper or metal, etc
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Saint Anthony The Great
Saint Anthony or Antony (Greek: Ἀντώνιος, Antṓnios; Latin: Antonius, Coptic: Ⲁⲃⲃⲁ Ⲁⲛⲧⲱⲛⲓ, lit. Avva Antoni; c. 251 – 356) was a Christian monk from Egypt, revered since his death as a saint. He is distinguished from other saints named Anthony by various epithets: Anthony the Great, Anthony of Egypt, Anthony the Abbot, Anthony of the Desert, Anthony the Anchorite, and Anthony of Thebes. For his importance among the Desert Fathers and to all later Christian monasticism, he is also known as the Father of All Monks. His feast day is celebrated on January 17 among the Orthodox and Catholic churches and on Tobi 22 in the Egyptian calendar used by the Coptic Church. The biography of Anthony's life by Athanasius of Alexandria helped to spread the concept of Christian monasticism, particularly in Western Europe via its Latin translations
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