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Western Civilisation
WESTERN CULTURE, sometimes equated with WESTERN CIVILIZATION, OCCIDENTAL CULTURE, the WESTERN WORLD, WESTERN SOCIETY, EUROPEAN CIVILIZATION, or JUDEO-GRECO-CHRISTIAN CIVILIZATION, is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms , ethical values , traditional customs , belief systems , political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe
Europe
. The term also applies beyond Europe, to countries and cultures whose histories are strongly connected to Europe
Europe
by immigration, colonization, or influence. For example, Western Culture includes countries in the Americas
Americas
and Australasia
Australasia
, whose language and demographic ethnicity majorities are currently European
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Jewish Culture
JEWISH CULTURE is the culture of the Jewish people
Jewish people
from the formation of the Jewish nation in biblical times through life in the diaspora and the modern state of Israel
Israel
. Judaism
Judaism
guides its adherents in both practice and belief, so that it has been called not only a religion , but an orthopraxy . Not all individuals or all cultural phenomena can be classified as either "secular" or "religious", a distinction native to Enlightenment thinking. Jewish culture
Jewish culture
in its etymological meaning retains linkage to the Jewish people's land of origin , the people named for the Kingdom of Judah , study of Jewish texts , practice of community charity , and Jewish history
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Ancient Rome
In historiography , ANCIENT ROME refers to the Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome
Rome
in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom , Roman Republic and Roman Empire
Roman Empire
until the fall of the western empire. The term is sometimes used to just refer to the kingdom and republic periods, excluding the subsequent empire . The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian peninsula , dating from the 8th century BC, that grew into the city of Rome
Rome
and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed
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Celts
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture Caucasus * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo Eastern Europe * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni Northern Europe* Corded ware * Bad
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Slavs
SLAVS are the largest Indo-European ethno-linguistic group in Europe . They are native to Central Europe
Europe
, Eastern Europe
Europe
, Southeastern Europe
Europe
, Northeastern Europe
Europe
, North Asia , Central Asia
Central Asia
and West Asia . Slavs
Slavs
speak Slavic languages of the Balto-Slavic language group. From the early 6th century they spread to inhabit most of Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. States with Slavic languages comprise over 50% of the territory of Europe, therefore it is the largest ethno-linguistic group in Europe by land area
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Middle East
The MIDDLE EAST is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia
Asia
, Turkey
Turkey
(both Asian and European ), and Egypt
Egypt
(which is mostly in North Africa
North Africa
). The corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East (as opposed to the Far East ) beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs
Arabs
, Turks , Persians , Kurds
Kurds
, and Azeris (excluding Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
) constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population
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Ancient Greece
ANCIENT GREECE was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (c. 600 AD). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine
Byzantine
era. Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece , Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the period of Archaic Greece
Archaic Greece
and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin . This was followed by the period of Classical Greece , an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars , lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedonia , Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea
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Western Law
WESTERN LAW refers to the legal traditions of Western culture
Western culture
. Western culture
Western culture
has an idea of the importance of law which has its roots in both Roman law
Roman law
and canon law . As Western culture
Western culture
has a Graeco-Roman Classical and Renaissance
Renaissance
cultural influence, so does its legal systems. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Western legal culture * 3 See also * 4 References HISTORYThe rediscovery of the Justinian Code in the early 10th century rekindled a passion for the discipline of law, which crossed many of the re-forming boundaries between East and West. Eventually, it was only in the Catholic
Catholic
or Frankish west, that Roman law
Roman law
became the foundation on which all legal concepts and systems were based
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Technology
TECHNOLOGY ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia ) is the collection of techniques , skills , methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation . Technology
Technology
can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. The simplest form of technology is the development and use of basic tools . The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the later Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food, and the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment
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History
HISTORY (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory . It is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians . History
History
can also refer to the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, and objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them. Historians sometimes debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present
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The Americas
Largest metropolitan areas Largest cities List * São Paulo
São Paulo
* Lima
Lima
* Mexico City
Mexico City
* New York City
New York City
* Bogotá * Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
* Santiago
Santiago
* Los Angeles
Los Angeles
* Caracas
Caracas
* Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
CIA political map of the Americas
Americas
in Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection The AMERICAS (also collectively called AMERICA) encompass the totality of the continents of North and South America
South America

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Australasia
AUSTRALASIA, a region of Oceania
Oceania
, comprises Australia
Australia
, New Zealand , the island of New Guinea
New Guinea
, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean
Ocean
. Charles de Brosses coined the term (as French Australasie) in Histoire des navigations aux terres australes (1756). He derived it from the Latin
Latin
for "south of Asia
Asia
" and differentiated the area from Polynesia
Polynesia
(to the east) and the southeast Pacific ( Magellanica ). The bulk of Australasia
Australasia
sits on the Indo-Australian Plate
Indo-Australian Plate
, together with India
India

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Christianity
CHRISTIANITY is a universalising Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life , teachings , and miracles of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth
Nazareth
, known by Christians
Christians
as the Christ , or "Messiah", who is the focal point of the Christian
Christian
faiths . It is the world\'s largest religion , with over 2.4 billion followers, or 33% of the global population, known as Christians
Christians
. Christians
Christians
make up a majority of the population in 158 countries and territories . They believe that Jesus
Jesus
is the Son of God
God
and the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah
Messiah
(the Christ ) was prophesied in the Old Testament
Old Testament

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Orthodox Church
The EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCH, also known as the ORTHODOX CHURCH, or officially as the ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the second-largest Christian church and one of the oldest extant religious institutions in the world. The Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church teaches that it is the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church established by Jesus
Jesus
Christ in his Great Commission to the apostles. It practices what it understands to be the original Christian faith and maintains the sacred tradition passed down from the apostles . The Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church is a communion of autocephalous churches , each typically governed by a Holy Synod . It teaches that all bishops are equal by virtue of their ordination , and has no central governing structure analogous to the Papacy in the Roman Catholic Church
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Rationalism
In philosophy , RATIONALISM is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification". More formally, rationalism is defined as a methodology or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive ". In an old controversy, rationalism was opposed to empiricism , where the rationalists believed that reality has an intrinsically logical structure. Because of this, the rationalists argued that certain truths exist and that the intellect can directly grasp these truths. That is to say, rationalists asserted that certain rational principles exist in logic , mathematics , ethics , and metaphysics that are so fundamentally true that denying them causes one to fall into contradiction
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Religion
RELIGION is any cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views , texts , sanctified places , ethics , or organizations , that relate humanity to the supernatural or transcendental . Religions relate humanity to what anthropologist Clifford Geertz has referred to as a cosmic "order of existence". However, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion. Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from the divine , sacred things , faith , a supernatural being or supernatural beings or "some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life". Religious practices may include rituals , sermons , commemoration or veneration (of deities ), sacrifices , festivals , feasts , trances , initiations , funerary services , matrimonial services , meditation , prayer , music , art , dance , public service , or other aspects of human culture
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