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Western Arabic
Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
(Western Arabic; as opposed to Eastern Arabic
Arabic
or Mashriqi Arabic) is an Arabic
Arabic
dialect spoken in the Maghreb
Maghreb
region, in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Western Sahara, and Mauritania. It includes Moroccan Arabic, Algerian Arabic, Tunisian Arabic, Libyan Arabic, and Hassaniya Arabic. Speakers of Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
call their language Derja, Derija or Darija (Arabic: الدارجة‎; meaning "to rise or advance step by step"[2])
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Darja, Iran
Darreh Ja
Darreh Ja
(Persian: دره جا‎, also Romanized as Darreh Jā; also known as Darjā)[1] is a village in Mahan Rural District, Mahan District, Kerman
Kerman
County, Kerman
Kerman
Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 12, in 6 families.[2] References[edit]^ Darreh Ja
Darreh Ja
can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3764159" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database". ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". Islamic Republic of Iran
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Hassānīya
Hassānīya (Arabic: حسانية‎ Ḥassānīya; also known as Hassaniyya, Klem El Bithan, Hasanya, Hassani, Hassaniya) is a variety of Maghrebi Arabic. It was spoken by the Beni Ḥassān Bedouin tribes, who extended their authority over most of Mauritania
Mauritania
and Morocco's southeastern and Western Sahara
Western Sahara
between the 15th and 17th centuries. Hassaniya Arabic
Arabic
was the language spoken in the pre-modern region around Chinguetti. The language has now almost completely replaced the Berber languages that were originally spoken in this region. Although clearly a western dialect, Hassānīya is relatively distant from other Maghrebi variants of Arabic. Its geographical location exposed it to influence from Zenaga-Berber and Wolof. There are several dialects of Hassānīya which differ primarily phonetically
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Siculo-Arabic
Siculo- Arabic
Arabic
(or Sicilian Arabic) is a vernacular variety of Arabic spoken in modern Malta
Malta
and once spoken in the whole region of the (Emirate of Sicily) between the end of the ninth century and the end of the twelfth century. The language became extinct in mainland Sicily, but on the islands of Malta
Malta
it eventually evolved into what is now the Maltese language.Contents1 Arab conquest of Sicily 2 Maltese language 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksArab conquest of Sicily[edit] Main articles: Muslim
Muslim
conquest of Sicily, History of Islam in southern Italy, and Emirate of Sicily During the 7th and 8th centuries, Sicily
Sicily
was raided from Tunis. The eventual Muslim
Muslim
Arab conquest of Byzantine Sicily
Sicily
was piecemeal and slow
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Pre-Hilalian Arabic Dialects
Pre- Hilalian dialects are a continuum of Arabic dialects native to North Africa
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Hilalian Dialects
The Hilalian dialects are a continuum of Arabic dialects native to North Africa. Etymology[edit] The term Hilalian dialects refer to the Banu Hilal, a confederation of Arab nomadic tribes who invaded North Africa
North Africa
in the eleventh century. Alo
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Koiné Language
In linguistics, a koiné language, koiné dialect, or simply koiné ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
κοινή, "common [language]") is a standard language or dialect that has arisen as a result of contact between two or more mutually intelligible varieties (dialects) of the same language.[1][2] Since speakers already understood one another from before the advent of the koiné, the koineisation process is not as drastic as pidginization and creolization. Unlike pidginization and creolization, there is no "target" within Koine formation. It involves continuity in that speakers do not need to abandon their own linguistic varieties. Normal influence between neighbouring dialects is not regarded as koineisation. A koiné variety emerges as a new spoken variety in addition to the originating dialects; it does not change any existing dialect
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Jebli Arabic
Jebli (Jebelia) is a pre-Hilalian Arabic
Arabic
dialect spoken in the mountains of the north of Morocco. The word jebli means "of/from the mountain"
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Jijel Arabic
Jijeli, or Jijel
Jijel
Arabic, is a variety of Arabic spoken specifically in the Jijel Province
Jijel Province
in northeastern Algeria, but traces of it reach parts of the neighboring Skikda
Skikda
and Mila Provinces
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Andalusian Arabic
Andalusian Arabic, also known as Andalusi Arabic, was a variety or varieties of the Arabic language
Arabic language
spoken in Al-Andalus, the regions of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
(modern Spain
Spain
and Portugal) under Muslim
Muslim
rule (and for some time after) from the 9th century to the 17th century. It became an extinct language in Iberia after the expulsion of the Moriscos, which took place over a century after the Conquest of Granada by Christian
Christian
Spain. Once widely spoken in Iberia, the expulsions and persecutions of Arabic speakers caused an abrupt end to the language's use on the peninsula
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Lexicon
A lexicon, word-hoard, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical). In linguistics, a lexicon is a language's inventory of lexemes. The word "lexicon" derives from the Greek λεξικόν (lexicon), neuter of λεξικός (lexikos) meaning "of or for words."[1] Linguistic theories generally regard human languages as consisting of two parts: a lexicon, essentially a catalogue of a language's words (its wordstock); and a grammar, a system of rules which allow for the combination of those words into meaningful sentences. The lexicon is also thought to include bound morphemes, which cannot stand alone as words (such as most affixes).[2] In some analyses, compound words and certain classes of idiomatic expressions and other collocations are also considered to be part of the lexicon
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Bedouin
The Bedouin
Bedouin
(/ˈbɛdu.ɪn/;[10] Arabic: بَدَوِي badawī) is a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and the Levant.[11] The English word bedouin comes from the Arabic
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Saharan Arabic
Algerian Saharan Arabic
Saharan Arabic
(also known as Saharan Arabic, Tamanrasset Arabic, Tamanghasset Arabic) is a structurally distinct variety of Arabic spoken by an estimated 100,000 people in Algeria, predominantly along the Moroccan border with the Atlas Mountains. It is also spoken by about 10,000 people in neighbouring regions of Niger
Niger
and Mali. References[edit]^ Algerian Saharan Arabic
Saharan Arabic
at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Algerian Saharan Arabic". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0
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Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
(MSA; Arabic: اللغة العربية الفصحى‎ al-lughat ul-ʻArabīyat ul-fuṣḥā 'the most eloquent Arabic
Arabic
language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic
Arabic
is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic
Arabic
used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world
Arab world
to facilitate communication
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Egypt
Coordinates: 26°N 30°E / 26°N 30°E / 26; 30Arab Republic
Republic
of Egyptجمهورية مصر العربيةArabic: Jumhūrīyat Miṣr al-ʿArabīyahEgyptian: Gomhoreyet Maṣr El ʿArabeyahFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady" "بلادي، بلادي، بلادي" "My country, my country, my country"Capital and largest city Cairo 30°2′N 31°13′E / 30.033°N 31.217°E / 30.033; 31.217Official languages Arabic[a]National language Egyptian ArabicReligion90% Islam 9% Orthodox Christian 1% Other Christian[1]Demonym EgyptianGovernment Unitary semi-presidential republic• PresidentAbdel Fattah el-Sisi• Prime MinisterSherif IsmailLegislature House of RepresentativesEstablishment• Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt[2][3][b]c
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Lebanon
Coordinates: 33°50′N 35°50′E / 33.833°N 35.833°E / 33.833; 35.833Lebanese Republic الجمهورية اللبنانية (Arabic) al-Jumhūrīyah al-LubnānīyahFlagCoat of armsAnthem: كلّنا للوطن Kulluna lil-watan All Of Us, For the Country!Capital and largest city Beirut 33°54′N 35°32′E / 33.900°N 35.533°E / 33.900; 35.533Official languages Arabic[nb 1]Recognised languages FrenchDemonym LebaneseGovernment Unitary parliamentary multi-confessionalist republic[1]• PresidentMichel Aoun[2]• Prime MinisterSaad Hariri• Speaker of the ParliamentNabih BerriLegislature ParliamentEstablishment• Greater Lebanon1 September 1920• Constitution23 May 1926• Independence declared22 November 1943• Independence (Joined U
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