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West Saxons
WESSEX (/ˈwɛsɪks/ ; Old English
Old English
: Westseaxna rīce , "kingdom of the West Saxons") was an Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
kingdom in the south of Great Britain , from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan
Æthelstan
in the early 10th century. The Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
believed that Wessex
Wessex
was founded by Cerdic and Cynric , but this may be a legend . The two main sources for the history of Wessex
Wessex
are the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
and the West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List, which sometimes conflict. Wessex
Wessex
became a Christian kingdom after Cenwalh was baptised and was expanded under his rule. Cædwalla later conquered Sussex
Sussex
, Kent
Kent
and the Isle of Wight
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English Law
ENGLISH LAW is the common law legal system governing England and Wales
Wales
, comprising criminal law and civil law . English law
English law
has no formal codification : the essence of English common law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts applying statute , and legal precedent (stare decisis ) from previous cases. A decision of the Supreme Court
Court
of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, the highest civil appeal court of the United Kingdom, is binding on every other court . Some rulings are derived from legislation ; others, known as common law, are based on rulings of previous courts. For example, murder is a common law crime rather than one established by an Act of Parliament. Common law
Common law
can be amended or repealed by Parliament; murder, for example, now carries a mandatory life sentence rather than the death penalty
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Isle Of Wight
The ISLE OF WIGHT /ˈaɪl əv ˈwaɪt/ (referred to informally as IoW ) is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England. It is in the English Channel
English Channel
, about 4 miles (6 km) off the coast of Hampshire , separated by the Solent
Solent
. The island has resorts that have been holiday destinations since Victorian times , and is known for its mild climate, coastal scenery, and verdant landscape of fields, downland and chines . The island has been home to the poets Swinburne and Tennyson and to Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
, who built her much-loved summer residence and final home Osborne House
Osborne House
at East Cowes . It has a maritime and industrial tradition including boat-building, sail-making, the manufacture of flying boats , the hovercraft , and Britain's space rockets
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Bishop
A BISHOP (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek ἐπίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained , consecrated , or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Roman Catholic , Eastern Orthodox , Oriental Orthodox , Anglican , Old Catholic and Independent Catholic churches and in the Assyrian Church of the East , bishops claim apostolic succession , a direct historical lineage dating back to the original Twelve Apostles
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Hegemony
HEGEMONY (UK : /hɪˈɡɛməni/ or /hɪˈdʒɛməni/ or US : /hɪˈdʒɛməni/ or pronunciation (help ·info ) or /ˈhɛdʒɪˌmoʊni/ or Greek : ἡγεμονία, hēgemonía), "leadership, rule" is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others. In ancient Greece (8th century BC – 6th century AD), hegemony denoted the politico–military dominance of a city-state over other city-states. The dominant state is known as the hegemon. In the 19th century, hegemony came to denote the "Social or cultural predominance or ascendancy; predominance by one group within a society or milieu"
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Norman Conquest Of England
The NORMAN CONQUEST OF ENGLAND was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England
England
by an army of Norman , Breton , and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy , later styled as William the Conqueror . William's claim to the English throne derived from his familial relationship with the childless Anglo-Saxon King Edward the Confessor , who may have encouraged William's hopes for the throne. Edward died in January 1066 and was succeeded by his brother-in-law Harold Godwinson . The Norwegian king Harald Hardrada invaded northern England
England
in September 1066 and was victorious at the Battle of Fulford , but Harold defeated and killed him at the Battle of Stamford Bridge on 25 September. Within days, William landed in southern England. Harold marched south to confront him, leaving a significant portion of his army in the north
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Sceat
A SCEAT (pronounced shat ; pl. sceattas) was a small, thick silver coin minted in England
England
, Frisia
Frisia
and Jutland
Jutland
during the Anglo-Saxon period. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Legends * 3 Imagery * 4 Minting * 5 Gallery * 6 References * 6.1 Citations * 6.2 Bibliography * 7 External links HISTORY See also: Anglo-Saxon penny Its name derives from Old English
Old English
sceatt, meaning "wealth", "money", and "coin", which has been applied to these coins since the 17th century based on interpretations of the legal codes of Mercia
Mercia
and of Kent under its king Æthelberht . It is likely, however, that the coins were more often known to contemporaries as "pennies " (Old English : peningas), much like their successor silver coins
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Baptism
BAPTISM (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below ) is a Christian
Christian
sacrament of admission and adoption , almost invariably with the use of water, into the Christian Church
Christian Church
generally. The canonical Gospels report that Jesus
Jesus
was baptized —a historical event to which a high degree of certainty can be assigned. Baptism
Baptism
has been called a holy sacrament and an ordinance of Jesus Christ. In some denominations, baptism is also called christening, but for others the word "christening" is reserved for the baptism of infants . Baptism
Baptism
has also given its name to the Baptist churches and denominations
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Kingdom Of East Anglia
The KINGDOM OF THE EAST ANGLES (Old English : Ēast Engla Rīce; Latin : Regnum Orientalium Anglorum), today known as the KINGDOM OF EAST ANGLIA, was a small independent kingdom of the Angles comprising what are now the English counties of Norfolk and Suffolk and perhaps the eastern part of the Fens . The kingdom formed in the 6th century in the wake of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain . It was ruled by the Wuffingas in the 7th and 8th centuries, but fell to Mercia in 794, and was conquered by the Danes in 869, forming part of the Danelaw . It was conquered by Edward the Elder and incorporated into the Kingdom of England in 918
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Southern England
SOUTHERN ENGLAND, or the SOUTH OF ENGLAND, also known as THE SOUTH, refers roughly to the southern counties of England
England
. The extent of this area can take a number of different interpretations depending on the context, including geographical, cultural, political and economic. Geographically, the extent of the south of England
England
may vary from the southern one-third of the country (excluding central England), to the southern half, bordering northern England
England
. The South is often considered a principal cultural area of England, along with the Midlands and Northern England
England
. Many consider the area to have a distinct identity from the rest of England, however without universal agreement on what cultural, political, and economic characteristics of the South are
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Cynric Of Wessex
CYNRIC was King of Wessex from 534 to 560. Everything known about him comes from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle . There he is stated to have been the son of Cerdic , and also (in the regnal list in the preface) to have been the son of Cerdic's son, Creoda . During his reign it is said that the Saxons expanded into Wiltshire against strong resistance and captured Searobyrig or Old Sarum , near Salisbury , in 552. In 556 he and his son Ceawlin won a battle against the Britons at Beranburh, now identified as Barbury Castle . If these dates are accurate, then it is unlikely that the earlier entries in the Chronicle, starting with his arrival in Britain with his father Cerdic in 495, are correct. David Dumville has suggested that his true regnal dates are 554-581
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the UK includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to its east, the English Channel
English Channel
to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world
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Kingdom Of England
Unitary parliamentary monarchy (1215–1707) MONARCH • 927–939 Æthelstan
Æthelstan
(first) • 1702–1707 Anne (last) LEGISLATURE Parliament • Upper house House of Lords
House of Lords
• Lower house House of Commons
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Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
The ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
. The original manuscript of the Chronicle was created late in the 9th century, probably in Wessex
Wessex
, during the reign of Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
. Multiple copies were made of that one original and then distributed to monasteries across England, where they were independently updated. In one case, the Chronicle was still being actively updated in 1154. Nine manuscripts survive in whole or in part, though not all are of equal historical value and none of them is the original version. The oldest seems to have been started towards the end of Alfred's reign, while the most recent was written at Peterborough Abbey after a fire at that monastery in 1116
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Legend
A LEGEND is a narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to take place within human history and demonstrating human values, and which possesses certain qualities that give the tale verisimilitude . Legend, for its active and passive participants, includes no happenings that are outside the realm of "possibility," but may include miracles . Legends may be transformed over time, in order to keep them fresh and vital, and realistic . Many legends operate within the realm of uncertainty, never being entirely believed by the participants, but also never being resolutely doubted. The Brothers Grimm defined legend as folktale historically grounded. A modern folklorist 's professional definition of legend was proposed by Timothy R
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Shire
A SHIRE is a traditional term for a division of land, found in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and some other English speaking countries. It was first used in Wessex
Wessex
from the beginning of Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
settlement, and spread to most of the rest of England
England
in the tenth century. In some rural parts of Australia, a shire is a local government area; however, in Australia
Australia
it is not synonymous with a "county", which is a lands administrative division
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