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Waw An Namus
Waw an Namus
Waw an Namus
(also spelled Wau-en-Namus, Arabic: واو الناموس‎) is a volcano in Libya. Of either Pleistocene
Pleistocene
or Holocene
Holocene
age, it is located within the eastern Fezzan
Fezzan
region. The origin of the volcanism there and at Al Haruj
Haruj
farther north is not clear. Radiometric dating
Radiometric dating
has yielded an age of about 200,000 years ago, but other circumstantial evidence points to a Holocene
Holocene
or even historical formation of the volcano. Waw an Namus
Waw an Namus
is characterized by a caldera surrounded by an apron of dark tephra, which has a notable colour contrast to the surrounding desert terrain of the Sahara. A smaller crater lies northwest of the Waw an Namus
Waw an Namus
caldera
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Summit
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a local maximum in elevation. The topographic terms "acme", "apex", "peak", and "zenith" are synonymous.Contents1 Definition1.1 Western United States 1.2 Summit
Summit
climbing equipment2 See also 3 References 4 External linksDefinition[edit] The term "top" is generally used only for a mountain peak that is located some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are often considered subsummits (or subpeaks) of the higher peak, and are considered as part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top
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Isotope Ratio
The term stable isotope has a meaning similar to stable nuclide, but is preferably used when speaking of nuclides of a specific element. Hence, the plural form stable isotopes usually refers to isotopes of the same element. The relative abundance of such stable isotopes can be measured experimentally (isotope analysis), yielding an isotope ratio that can be used as a research tool. Theoretically, such stable isotopes could include the radiogenic daughter products of radioactive decay, used in radiometric dating. However, the expression stable isotope ratio is preferably used to refer to isotopes whose relative abundances are affected by isotope fractionation in nature
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Ash
Ash
Ash
or ashes are the solid remains of fires. Specifically, it refers to all non-aqueous, non-gaseous residues that remain after something is burned. In analytical chemistry, in order to analyse the mineral and metal content of chemical samples, ash is the non-gaseous, non-liquid residue after a complete combustion. Ashes as the end product of incomplete combustion will be mostly mineral, but usually still contain an amount of combustible organic or other oxidizable residues. The best-known type of ash is wood ash, as a product of wood combustion in campfires, fireplaces, etc
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Lapilli
Lapilli
Lapilli
is a size classification term for tephra, which is material that falls out of the air during a volcanic eruption or during some meteorite impacts.[1] Lapilli
Lapilli
(singular: lapillus) means "little stones" in Latin. By definition lapilli range from 2 to 64 mm (0.08 to 2.52 in) in diameter.[2] A pyroclastic particle greater than 64 mm in diameter is known as a volcanic bomb when molten, or a volcanic block when solid
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Mudflow
A mudflow or mud flow is a form of mass wasting involving "very rapid to extremely rapid surging flow"[1] of debris that has become partially or fully liquified by the addition of significant amounts of water to the source material.[2] Mudflows contain a significant proportion of clay, which makes them more fluid than debris flows; thus, they are able to travel farther and across lower slope angles
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Trade Wind
The trade winds are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, in the lower section of the troposphere near the Earth's equator. The trade winds blow predominantly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere, strengthening during the winter and when the Arctic oscillation
Arctic oscillation
is in its warm phase
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Lake
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.[1] Lakes lie on land and are not part of the ocean, and therefore are distinct from lagoons, and are also larger and deeper than ponds, though there are no official or scientific definitions.[2] Lakes can be contrasted with rivers or streams, which are usually flowing. Most lakes are fed and drained by rivers and streams. Natural lakes are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones, and areas with ongoing glaciation. Other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers. In some parts of the world there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age
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Groundwater
Groundwater
Groundwater
is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock become completely saturated with water is called the water table. Groundwater
Groundwater
is recharged from, and eventually flows to, the surface naturally; natural discharge often occurs at springs and seeps, and can form oases or wetlands. Groundwater
Groundwater
is also often withdrawn for agricultural, municipal, and industrial use by constructing and operating extraction wells
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Evaporation
Evaporation
Evaporation
is a type of vaporization, that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase.[1] The surrounding gas must not be saturated with the evaporating substance. When the molecules of the liquid collide, they transfer energy to each other based on how they collide. When a molecule near the surface absorbs enough energy to overcome the vapor pressure, it will "escape" and enter the surrounding air as a gas.[2] When evaporation occurs, the energy removed from the vaporized liquid will reduce the temperature of the liquid, resulting in evaporative cooling.[3] On average, only a fraction of the molecules in a liquid have enough heat energy to escape from the liquid. The evaporation will continue until an equilibrium is reached when the evaporation of the liquid is the equal to its condensation
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Precipitation
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.[2] The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, rain, sleet, snow, graupel and hail. Precipitation
Precipitation
occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates". Thus, fog and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes, possibly acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation
Precipitation
forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud
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Freshwater
Fresh water
Fresh water
(or freshwater) is naturally occurring water on Earth's surface in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, icebergs, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers and streams, and underground as groundwater. Fresh water is generally characterized by having low concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids. The term specifically excludes seawater and brackish water although it does include mineral-rich waters such as chalybeate springs. Fresh water
Fresh water
is not the same as potable water (or drinking water): Much of the earth's surface fresh water and groundwater is unsuitable for drinking without some form of treatment
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Spring (hydrology)
A spring is any natural situation where water flows from an aquifer to the Earth's surface. It is a component of the hydrosphere.Contents1 Formation1.1 Types2 Flow2.1 Classification3 Water
Water
content 4 Uses4.1 Sacred springs5 Notable springs 6 See also 7 References7.1 Citations 7.2 Further reading8 External linksFormation[edit]A natural spring on Mackinac Island
Mackinac Island
in MichiganA spring may be the result of karst topography where surface water has infiltrated the Earth's surface (recharge area), becoming part of the area groundwater. The groundwater then travels through a network of cracks and fissure—openings ranging from intergranular spaces to large caves
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Lava Flow
Lava
Lava
is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from 700 to 1,200 °C (1,292 to 2,192 °F). The resulting structures after solidification and cooling are also sometimes described as lava. The molten rock is formed in the interior of some planets, including Earth, and some of their satellites, though such material located below the crust is referred to by other terms. A lava flow is a moving outpouring of lava created during a non-explosive effusive eruption. When it has stopped moving, lava solidifies to form igneous rock. The term lava flow is commonly shortened to lava
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Phreatomagmatic
Phreatomagmatic eruptions are volcanic eruptions resulting from interaction between magma and water. They differ from exclusively magmatic eruptions and phreatic eruptions. Unlike phreatic eruptions, the products of phreatomagmatic eruptions contain juvenile (magmatic) clasts.[1] It is common for a large explosive eruption to have magmatic and phreatomagmatic components.Contents1 Mechanisms 2 Deposits2.1 Hyaloclastite 2.2 Hyalotuff3 Surface features3.1 Tuff rings 3.2 Tuff cones4 Examples of phreatomagmatic eruptions4.1 Minoan eruption
Minoan eruption
of Santorini 4.2 Pinatubo, 1991 4.3 Lake
Lake
Taupo5 See also 6 References 7 Further readingMechanisms[edit] Several competing theories exist as to the exact mechanism of ash formation. The most common is the theory of explosive thermal contraction of particles under rapid cooling from contact with water. In many cases the water is supplied by the sea, for example with Surtsey
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Volcanic Field
A volcanic field is an area of the Earth's crust that is prone to localized volcanic activity. They usually contain 10 to 100 volcanoes such as cinder cones and are usually in clusters. Lava
Lava
flows may also occur
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