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Wavelength
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats,[1][2] and thus the inverse of the spatial frequency. It is usually determined by considering the distance between consecutive corresponding points of the same phase, such as crests, troughs, or zero crossings and is a characteristic of both traveling waves and standing waves, as well as other spatial wave patterns.[3][4] Wavelength
Wavelength
is commonly designated by the Greek letter
Greek letter
lambda (λ)
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Cosine
In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also called circular functions, angle functions or goniometric functions[1][2]) are functions of an angle. They relate the angles of a triangle to the lengths of its sides. Trigonometric functions
Trigonometric functions
are important in the study of triangles and modeling periodic phenomena, among many other applications. The most familiar trigonometric functions are the sine, cosine, and tangent. In the context of the standard unit circle (a circle with radius 1 unit), where a triangle is formed by a ray starting at the origin and making some angle with the x-axis, the sine of the angle gives the length of the y-component (the opposite to the angle or the rise) of the triangle, the cosine gives the length of the x-component (the adjacent of the angle or the run), and the tangent function gives the slope (y-component divided by the x-component). More precise definitions are detailed below
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Sound Spectrum
A harmonic series is the sequence of sounds[1]—pure tones, represented by sinusoidal waves—in which the frequency[2] of each sound is an integer multiple of the fundamental, the lowest frequency.[3] Pitched musical instruments are often based on an acoustic resonator such as a string or a column of air, which oscillates at numerous modes simultaneously. At the frequencies of each vibrating mode, waves travel in both directions along the string or air column, reinforcing and canceling each other to form standing waves. Interaction with the surrounding air causes audible sound waves, which travel away from the instrument
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Linear
Linearity is the property of a mathematical relationship or function which means that it can be graphically represented as a straight line. Examples are the relationship of voltage and current across a resistor (Ohm's law), or the mass and weight of an object. Proportionality implies linearity, but linearity does not imply proportionality.Contents1 In mathematics1.1 Linear polynomials 1.2 Boolean functions2 Physics 3 Electronics3.1 Integral linearity4 Military tactical formations 5 Art 6 Music 7 Measurement 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksIn mathematics[edit] In mathematics, a linear map or linear function f(x) is a function that satisfies the following two properties:[1]Additivity: f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y). Homogeneity of degree 1: f(αx) = αf(x) for all α.The homogeneity and additivity properties together are called the superposition principle
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Angular Frequency
In physics, angular frequency ω (also referred to by the terms angular speed, radial frequency, circular frequency, orbital frequency, radian frequency, and pulsatance) is a scalar measure of rotation rate. It refers to the angular displacement per unit time (e.g., in rotation) or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform (e.g., in oscillations and waves), or as the rate of change of the argument of the sine function. Angular frequency (or angular speed) is the magnitude of the vector quantity angular velocity
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Magnetic Field
A magnetic field is a force field that is created by moving electric charges (electric currents) and magnetic dipoles, and exerts a force on other nearby moving charges and magnetic dipoles. At any given point, it has a direction and a magnitude (or strength), so it is represented by a vector field. The term is used for two distinct but closely related fields denoted by the symbols B and H, where, in the International System of Units, H is measured in units of amperes per meter and B is measured in teslas or newtons per meter per ampere. H is a field introduced to account for the effects of magnetization, which is due to the presence of magnetic dipoles in materials
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Electric Field
An electric field is a field that surrounds electric charges. It represents charges attracting or repelling other electric charges by exerting force.[1] [2] Mathematically the electric field is a vector field that associates to each point in space the force, called the Coulomb
Coulomb
force, that would be experienced per unit of charge, by an infinitesimal test charge at that point.[3] The units of the electric field in the SI system are newtons per coulomb (N/C), or volts per meter (V/m). Electric fields are created by electric charges, and by time-varying magnetic fields. Electric fields are important in many areas of physics, and are exploited practically in electrical technology. On an atomic scale, the electric field is responsible for the attractive force between the atomic nucleus and electrons that holds atoms together, and the forces between atoms that cause chemical bonding
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3-space
Three-dimensional space
Three-dimensional space
(also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point). This is the informal meaning of the term dimension. In physics and mathematics, a sequence of n numbers can be understood as a location in n-dimensional space. When n = 3, the set of all such locations is called three-dimensional Euclidean space. It is commonly represented by the symbol ℝ3. This serves as a three-parameter model of the physical universe (that is, the spatial part, without considering time) in which all known matter exists. However, this space is only one example of a large variety of spaces in three dimensions called 3-manifolds
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Sound Pressure
Sound pressure
Sound pressure
or acoustic pressure is the local pressure deviation from the ambient (average or equilibrium) atmospheric pressure, caused by a sound wave. In air, sound pressure can be measured using a microphone, and in water with a hydrophone
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Electrical Conductor
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions. Materials made of metal are common electrical conductors. Electrical current
Electrical current
is generated by the flow of negatively charged electrons, positively charged holes, and positive or negative ions in some cases. In order for current to flow, it is not necessary for one charged particle to travel from the machine producing the current to that consuming it. Instead, the charged particle simply needs to nudge its neighbor a finite amount who will nudge its neighbor and on and on until a particle is nudged into the consumer, thus powering the machine. Essentially what is occurring here is a long chain of momentum transfer between mobile charge carriers; the Drude model
Drude model
of conduction describes this process more rigorously
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Free Space
Vacuum
Vacuum
is space devoid of matter. The word stems from the Latin adjective vacuus for "vacant" or "void". An approximation to such vacuum is a region with a gaseous pressure much less than atmospheric pressure.[1] Physicists often discuss ideal test results that would occur in a perfect vacuum, which they sometimes simply call "vacuum" or free space, and use the term partial vacuum to refer to an actual imperfect vacuum as one might have in a laboratory or in space. In engineering and applied physics on the other hand, vacuum refers to any space in which the pressure is lower than atmospheric pressure.[2] The Latin term in vacuo is used to describe an object that is surrounded by a vacuum. The quality of a partial vacuum refers to how closely it approaches a perfect vacuum. Other things equal, lower gas pressure means higher-quality vacuum
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Speed Of Sound
The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium. In dry air at 0 °C (32 °F), the speed of sound is 331.2 metres per second (1,087 ft/s; 1,192 km/h; 741 mph; 644 kn). At 20 °C (68 °F), the speed of sound is 343 metres per second (1,125 ft/s; 1,235 km/h; 767 mph; 667 kn), or a kilometre in 2.91 s or a mile in 4.69 s. The speed of sound in an ideal gas depends only on its temperature and composition. The speed has a weak dependence on frequency and pressure in ordinary air, deviating slightly from ideal behavior. In common everyday speech, speed of sound refers to the speed of sound waves in air. However, the speed of sound varies from substance to substance: sound travels most slowly in gases; it travels faster in liquids; and faster still in solids
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Standard Conditions For Temperature And Pressure
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data. The most used standards are those of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), although these are not universally accepted standards
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Envelope (mathematics)
In geometry, an envelope of a family of curves in the plane is a curve that is tangent to each member of the family at some point, and these points of tangency together form the whole envelope. Classically, a point on the envelope can be thought of as the intersection of two "infinitesimally adjacent" curves, meaning the limit of intersections of nearby curves. This idea can be generalized to an envelope of surfaces in space, and so on to higher dimensions. To have an envelope, the individual members of the family of curves need to be differentiable curves, for otherwise the concept of tangency does not apply, and there has to be a smooth transition proceeding through the members. But even if these conditions are satisfied, a given family may fail to have an envelope
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Modulation
In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted. Most radio systems in the 20th century used frequency modulation (FM) or amplitude modulation (AM) to make the carrier carry the radio broadcast. In general telecommunications, modulation is a process of conveying message signal, for example, a digital bit stream or an analog audio signal, inside another signal that can be physically transmitted. Modulation
Modulation
of a sine waveform transforms a narrow frequency range baseband message signal into a moderate to high frequency range passband signal, one that can pass through a filter. A modulator is a device that performs modulation. A demodulator (sometimes detector or demod) is a device that performs demodulation, the inverse of modulation
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Millimetre
The millimetre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI unit symbol mm) or millimeter (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousandth of a metre, which is the SI base unit
SI base unit
of length. Therefore, there are one thousand millimetres in a metre. There are ten millimetres in a centimetre. One millimetre is equal to 7003100000000000000♠1000 micrometres or 7006100000000000000♠1000000 nanometres
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